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Aylesworth, L., Loh, T.L., Rongrongmuang, W. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2017. Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) as a case study for locating cryptic and data‐poor marine fishes for conservation. Animal Conservation DOI: 10.1111/acv.12332

Hamilton, H., Saarman, N., Short, G., Sellas, A.B., Moore, B., Hoang, T., Grace, C., Gomon, M., Crow, K. and W. Simison. 2017. Molecular phylogeny and patterns of diversification in syngnathid fishes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 107:388–403.

Han, S.Y., Kim, J.K., Tashiro, F., Kai, Y. and J.T. Yoo. 2017. Relative importance of ocean currents and fronts in population structures of marine fish: a lesson from the cryptic lineages of the Hippocampus mohnikei complex. Marine Biodiversity 1-13.

Lawson, J.M. 2017. The global search for seahorses in bycatch. Fisheries 42(1):34-39 (photo diary).

Lawson, J.M., Foster, S.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2017. Low bycatch rates add up to big numbers for a genus of small fishes. Fisheries 42(1):19-33.

Müller, C. and K. Erzini. 2017. Interspecific differences in habitat selection of syngnathids in the Ria Formosa lagoon, Portugal. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 189:235–242.

Stocks, A.P., Foster, S.J., Bat, N.K. and A.C. Vincent. 2017. Catch as catch can: Targeted and indiscriminate small-scale fishing of seahorses in Vietnam. Fisheries Research 196:27-33.

Vincent, A.C.J. and S.J. Foster. 2017. Setting precedent in export regulations for marine fishes with seahorses.Fisheries 42(1):40-43 (guest column).

Whitfield, A.K., Mkare, T.K., Teske, P.R., James, N.C. and P.D. Cowley. 2017. Life-histories explain the conservation status of two estuary-associated pipefishes. Biological Conservation 212(2017):256–264.

Zhang, X. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2017. Integrating multiple data sets with species distribution models to inform conservation of the poorly-recorded Chinese seahorses. Biological Conservation 211:161-171.


Aylesworth, L.A., Lawson, J.M., Laksanawimol, P., Ferber, P. and T.L. Loh. 2016. New records of the Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei in Southeast Asia lead to updates in range, habitat and threats. Journal of Fish Biology 88:1620-1630.

Correia, M., Koldewey, H.J., Andrade, J.P. and J. Palma. 2016.  A novel underwater visual census: Seahorse population survey as a case study. Regional Studies in Marine Science 8(3):454-458.

Lam, J.T.L., Koldewey, H.J., Yasué, M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2016. Comparing interview and trade data in assessing changes in the seahorse Hippocampus spp, trade following CITES listing. Oryx 50(1):36-46.

Loh, T.L., Tewfik, A., Aylesworth, L. and R. Phoonsawat. 2016. Species in wildlife trade: socio-economic factors influence seahorse relative abundance in Thailand. Biological Conservation 201:301-308. 

Lourie, S.L., Pollom, R.A. and S.J. Foster. 2016. A global revision of the seahorses Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 (Actinopterygii: Syngnathiformes): Taxonomy and biogeography with recommendations for further research. Zootaxa 4146(1):001–066.

Foster, S., Wiswedel, S. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2016. Opportunities and challenges for analysis of wildlife trade using CITES data – seahorses as a case study. Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 26(1):154–172.

da Hora, M.D.S.C., Joyeux, J.C., Rodrigues, R.V., de Sousa-Santos, L.P., Gomes, L.C. and M.Y. Tsuzuki. 2016. Tolerance and growth of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi at different salinities. Aquaculture 463:1–6.


Boehm, J.T., Waldman, J., Robinson, J.D. and M.J. Hickerson. 2015. Population genomics reveals seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) of the western mid-Atlantic coast to be residents rather than vagrants. PLoS ONE 10(1):e0116219.

Cisneros-Montemayor, A.M., West, K., Boiro, I.S. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2015. An assessment of West African seahorses in fisheries catch and trade. Journal of Fish Biology 88(2), 751-759.

Correia, M., Caldwell, I.R., Koldewey, H.J., Andrade, J.P. and J. Palma. 2015. Seahorse (Hippocampinae) population fluctuations in the Ria Formosa Lagoon, south Portugal. Journal Fish Biology 87:679–690. doi:10.1111/jfb.12748

Correia, M., H.J. Koldewey, J.P. Andrade and J. Palma. 2015. Effects of artificial holdfast units on seahorse density in the Ria Formosa lagoon, Portugal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 471:1-7.

Goncalves, I.B., Mobley, K.B., Ahnesjo, I., Sagebakken, G., Jones, A.G. and C. Kvarnemo. 2015. Effects of mating order and male size on embryo survival in a pipefish. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society-Early Online:7 pp.

Lawson, J.M., Foster, S.J., Lim, A.C.O., Chong, V.C. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2015. Novel life-history data for threatened seahorses provide insight into fishery effects. Journal of Fish Biology 86(1): 1-15.

Lopez, A., Vera, M., Planas, M. and C. Bouza. 2015. Conservation genetics of threatened Hippocampus guttulatus in vulnerable habitats in NW Spain: Temporal and spatial Stability of wild populations with flexible polygamous mating system in captivity. PLoS ONE 10(2):e0117538.

Stiller, J., Wilson, N.G. and G.W. Rouse. 2015. A spectacular new species of seadragon (Syngnathidae). Royal Society Open Science 2:140458.

Woodall, L.C., Koldewey, H.J., Boehm, J.T. and P.W. Shaw. 2015. Past and present drivers of population structure in a small coastal fish, the European long snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Conservation genetics 16(5):1139-53.

Yasué, M., Nellas, A., Panes, H. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2015. Monitoring landed seahorse catch in a changing policy environment. Endangered Species Research 27:95-111.

Yip, M.Y., Lim, A.C.O., Chong, V.C., Lawson, J.M. and S.J. Foster. 2015. Food and feeding habits of the seahorses Hippocampus spinosissimus and Hippocampus trimaculatus (Malaysia). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 95(5):1033-1040.


Basusta, A., Ozer, E., Girgin, H., Serdar, O. and N. Basusta. 2014. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Hippocampus hippocampus and Hippocampus guttulatus inhabiting eastern Black Sea. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 46:447-450.

Biagi, F., Piras, F., Farina, V., Zedda, M., Mura, E., Floris, A., Franzoi, P., Fausto, A.M., Taddei, A.R. and M. Carcupino. 2014. Testis structure, spermatogenesis and sperm morphology in pipefishes of the genus Syngnathus. Acta Zoologica-Early online.

Blanco, A., Chamorro, A. and M. Planas. 2014. Implications of physical key factors in the early rearing of the long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Aquaculture 433:214-222.

Black, C.A., Scott, R.J. and M.A. Bernards. 2014. Seasonal changes in carotenoid and lipid storage by threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Environmental Biology of Fishes 97(2):209-214.

Buen-Ursua, S.M.A., Azuma, T., Arai, K. and R.M. Coloso. 2014. Improved reproductive performance of tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes, by mysid shrimp fed singly or in combination with other natural food. Aquaculture International 23(1):29-43.

Cartagena, A.B. 2014. Rearing of the seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus: Key factors involved in growth and survival. Research thesis, Universitat de les Illes Balears:292pp.

Chaturvedi, A., Raeymaekers, J.A. and F.A. Volckaert. 2014. Computational identification of miRNAs, their targets and functions in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Molecular Ecology Resources 14(4):768-777.

CITES. 2014. CITES Wiki Identificaiton Manual.

CITES. 2014. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. 

CITES. 2014. How CITES Works.

Correia, M., Palma, J. and J.P. Andrade. 2014. Growth performance of the early life stages of broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle (L.) fed different live or frozen diets. Aquaculture Research-Early Online.

Correia, M., Palma, J., Koldewey, H. and J.P. Andrade.  2014. The use of a non-invasive tool for capture-recapture studies on a seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus population. Journal of Fish Biology 84(4):872-884

Corse, E., Valladares, S., Planas, M., Chamorro, A. and J. Pintado. 2014. Analysis of the diet of the long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus by 18SrDNA amplification of prey in faeces. Aquaculture Nutrition-Early online.

Cunha, M., Berglund, A. and N.M. Monteiro. 2014. The intrinsically dynamic nature of mating patterns and sexual selection. Environmental Biology of Fish-Early online.

Declercq, A.M., Chiers, K., Van den Broeck, W., Rekecki, A., Teerlinck, S., Adriaens, D., Haesebrouck, F. and A. Decostere. 2014. White necrotic tail tips in estuary seahorses, Hippocampus kuda, Bleeker. Journal of Fish Diseases 37:501-504.

Flanagan, S.P., Johnson, J.B., Rose, E. and A.G. Jones. 2014. Sexual selection on female ornaments in the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli). Journal of Evolutionary Biology-Early online.

Foster, S. and F. Arreguin-Sanchez. 2014. Using distribution patterns of small fishes to assess small fish by-catch in tropical shrimp trawl fisheries. Animal Conservation 17(3):217-224.

Franz-Odendaal, T.A. and D. Adriaens. 2014. Comparative developmental osteology of the seahorse skeleton reveals heterochrony amongst Hippocampus sp. and progressive caudal fin loss. EvoDevo 5(1):1pp.

Foster, S.J., Wiswedel, S. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2014. Opportunities and challenges for analysis of wildlife trade using CITES data – seahorses as a case study. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems DOI:10.1002/aqc.2493

Gonzalez, R., Dinghi, P., Corio, C., Medina, A., Maggioni, M., Storero, L. and A. Gosztonyi. 2014. Reply to Luzzatto et al. (2014): “Comment on ‘Genetic evidence and new morphometric data as essential tools to identify Patagonian seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus (Pisces, Syngnathidae), Gonzalez et al. (2014)'”. Journal of fish biology in Press: 3.

Gonzalez, R., Dinghi, P., Corio, C., Medina, A., Maggioni, M., Storero, L. and A. Gosztonyi. 2014. Genetic evidence and new morphometric data as essential tools to identify the Patagonian seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus (Pisces, Syngnathidae). Journal of Fish Biology 84(2):459-474.

Gristina, M., Cardone, F., Carlucci, R., Castellano, L., Passarelli, S. and G. Corriero. 2014. Abundance, distribution and habitat preference of Hippocampus guttulatus and Hippocampus hippocampus in a semi-enclosed central Mediterranean marine area. Marine Ecology-Early View.

Harasti, D., Martin-Smith, K. and W. Gladstone. 2014. Does a no-take marine protected area benefit seahorses? PLoS ONE9: e105462.

Harasti, D., Martin-Smith, K. and W. Gladstone. 2014. Ontogenetic and sex-based differences in habtiat preferences and site fidelity of White’s seahorse Hippocampus whitei. Journal of Fish Biology 85(5):1413-28.

Harasti, D. 2014. The biology, ecology and conservation of White’s Seahorse Hippocampus whitei. Masters thesis submitted to the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia:223pp.

Haris, K., Chakraborty, B., Menezes, A., Sreepada, R.A. and W.A. Fernandes. 2014. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to characterize phase couplings in seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) feeding clicks. The Journal of The Acoustical Society of America 136:1972-1981.

Henrich, T., Hafer, N. and K.B. Mobley. 2014. Effects of VIE tagging and partial tissue sampling on the immune response of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Journal of Fish Biology 85:955-971.

Higuchi, M., Sakai, H. and A. Goto. 2014. A new threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus nipponicus sp. nov. (Teleostei: Gasterosteidae), from the Japan Sea region. Ichthyological Research 61:341-351.

Jamniczky, H.A., Harper, E.E., Garner, R., Cresko, W.A., Wainwright, P.C., Hallgrímsson, B. and C.B. Kimmel. 2014. Association between integration structure and functional evolution in the opercular four-bar apparatus of the threespine stickleback,Gasterostues aculeatus (Pisces: Gasterosteidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 111(2):375-390.

Kasapoglu, N. and E. Duzgunes. 2014. Some population characteristics of long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier, 1829) (Actinopterygii: Syngnathidae) in the southeastern Black Sea. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 66:127-131.

Lam, J.T.L., Koldewey, H.J., Yasue, M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2014. Comparing interview and trade data in assessing changes in the seahorse Hippocampus spp. trade following CITES listing. Oryx-Early Online:11pp.

Landis, S. 2014. Coping with a changing ocean: Responses to global warming in host-parasite interactions between the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) and its parasites. Doctoral thesis submitted to the Universität zu Kiel: 114pp.

Larson, S., Ramsey, C., Tinnemore, D. and C. Amemiya. 2014. Novel microsatellite loci variation and population genetics within leafy seadragons, Phycodurus eques. Diversity 6(1):33-42.

Lawson, J.M. 2014. Rare seahorses have big implications for small fishes in bycatch. Research thesis submitted to the University of British Columbia:123pp.

Lawson, J.M., Foster, S.J., Lim, A.C.O., Chong, V.C. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2014. Novel life history data for threatened seahorses provides insight into fishing effects. Journal of Fish Biology. DOI: 10.1111/jfb.12527

LePage, V., Young, J., Dutton, C.J., Crawshaw, G., Pare, J.A., Kummrow, M., McLelland, D.J., Huber, P., Young, K., Russell, S., Al-Hussinee, L. and J.S. Lumsden. 2014. Diseases of captive yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda Bleeker, pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson and weedy seadragon Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepede). Journal of Fish Diseases-Early View.

Luzzatto, D.C., Estalles, M.L. and J.M. Astarloa. 2014. Comment on ‘Genetic evidence and new morphometric data as essential tools to identify the Patagonian seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus (Pisces, Syngnathidae) by Gonzalez et al. (2014)’.  Journal of Fish Biology 85(5):1297-1299.

Lawson, J.M., Foster, S.J., Lim, A.C.O., Chong, V.C. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2014. Novel life history data for threatened seahorses provides insight into fishing effects. Journal of Fish Biology 86(1):1-15.

Martinez-Cardenas, L., Valdez-Hernandez, E.F., Gonzalez-Diaz, A.A., Soria-Barreto, M., Castaneda-Chavez, M.R., Lango-Reynoso, F., Ruiz-Velazco, J.M. and E. Pena-Messina. 2014. Effect of salinity on growth and survival in juvenile opossum pipefish, Microphis brachyurus, in culture conditions. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 45:577-585.

Mobley, K.B., Chakra, M. and A.G. Jones. 2014. No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes. Ecology and Evolution 4(1):67-78.

Monteiro, N.M., Silva, R.M., Cunha, M., Antunes, A., Jones, A.G. and M.N. Vieira. 2014. Validating the use of colouration patterns for individual recognition in the worm pipefish using a novel set of microsatellite markers. Molecular Ecology Resources 14(1):150-156.

Mwale, M., Kaiser, H. and P.C. Heemstra. 2014. Reproductive biology and distribution of Syngnathus temminckii and S. watermeyeri (Pisces: Syngnathidae) in southern Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 36:175-184.

Neutens, C., Adriaens, D., Christiaens, J., De Kegel, B., Dierick, M., Boistel, R. and L. Van Hoorebeke. 2014. Grasping convergent evolution in syngnathids: a unique tale of tails. Journal of Anatomy 224:710-723.

Noguchi, T., Sakuma, K., Kitahashi, T., Itoh, H., Kano, Y., Shinohara, G., Hashimoto, J. and S. Kojima. 2014. No genetic deviation between two morphotypes of the snipefishes (Macroramphosidae: Macroramphosus) in Japanese waters. Ichthyological Research-Early Online.

Oliveira, T.P.R., Ladich, F., Abed-Navandi, D., Souto, A.S. and I.L. Rosa. 2014. Sounds produced by the longsnout seahorse: a study of their structure and functions. Journal of Zoology 293:1-8.

Otero-Ferrer, F., Izquierdo, M., Fazeli, A. and W.V. Holt. 2014. Embryonic developmental plasticity in the long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus reidi, Ginsburg 1933) in relation to parental preconception diet. Reproduction, Fertility and Development-Online Early.

Park, J.M. and S.N. Kwak. 2014. Length–weight relationships and reproductive characteristics of the crowned seahorse (Hippocampus coronatus) in eelgrass beds (Zostera marina) of Dongdae Bay, Korea. Marine Biology Research 11(2):5pp.

Pichugin, M.Y. 2014. Morphological and biological specific features of two species of nine-spined sticklebacks of the genus Pungitius (Gasterosteiformes) from water bodies of western Kamchatka. Journal of Ichthyology 54:7-22.

Pinnegar, J.K., Tomczak, M.T. and J.S. Link. 2014. How to determine the likely indirect food-web consequences of a newly initroduced non-native species: A worked example. Ecological Modelling 272:379-387.

Qin, G., Zhang, Y., Huang, L. and Q. Lin. 2014. Effects of water current on swimming performance, ventilation frequency, and feeding behavior of young seahorses (Hippocampus erectus). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 461:337-343.

Rose, E., Small, C.M., Saucedo, H.A., Harper, C. and A.G. Jones. 2014. Genetic Evidence for Monogamy in the Dwarf Seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae. Journal of Heredity 105(6):828-833.

Roth, O., Sundin, J., Berglund, A., Rosenqvist, G. and K.M. Wegner. 2014. Male mate choice relies on major histocompatibility complex class I in a sex-role-reversed pipefish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27:929-938.

Saavedra, M., Masdeu, M., Hale, P., Sibbons, C.M. and W.V. Holt. 2014. Dietary fatty acid enrichment increases egg size and quality of yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda. Animal Reproduction Science 145:54-61.

Sanaye, S.V., Pise, N.M., Pawar, A.P., Parab, P.P., Sreepada, R.A., Pawar, H.B. and A.D. Revankar. 2014. Evaluation of antioxidant activities in captive-bred cultured yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852). Aquaculture 434:100-107.

Segade, A., Robaina, L., Otero-Ferrer, F., Romero, J.G. and L.M. Dominguez. 2014. Effects of the diet on seahorse (Hippocampus hippocampus) growth, body colour and biochemical composition. Aquaculture Nutrition-Early online.

Silveira, R.B., Siccha-Ramirez, R., Silva, J.R.S. and C. Oliveira. 2014. Morphological and molecular evidence for the occurrence of three Hippocampus species in Brazil. Zootaxa 3861:317-332.

Subburaman, S., Murugan, A., Goutham, S., Kaul, R., Jothi, P.V.R.P. and T. Balasubramanian. 2014. First distributional record of the giraffe seahorse, Hippocampus camelopardalis Bianconi 1854 (Family: Syngnathidae) from Gulf of Kachchh waters, North west coast of India. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences 43(3):408-411.

Turker-Cakir, D., Çoktuğ, B. and K. Zengin. 2014. First record of the bluespotted cornetfish, Fistularia commersonii Ruppell, 1835 (Osteichthyes: Fistulariidae) in Edremit Bay (north-eastern Aegean Sea). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 30(1):164-167.

Valladares, S., Banon, R., Lopez, A., Bouza, C., Chamorro, A., Garcia, M.E. and M. Planas. 2014. First records of the seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus in Galician waters (NW Spain). Cybium 38:74-76.

Van Wassenbergh, S., Dries, B. and A. Herrel. 2014. New insights into muscle function during pivot feeding in seahorses. PLoS ONE 9(10):e109068.

Vieira, R.P., Monteiro, P., Ribeiro, J., Bentes, L., Oliveira, F., Erzini, K. and J. Gonçalves. 2014. Length-weight relationships of six syngnathid species from Ria Formosa, SW Iberian coast. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 55(1):9-12.

Vite-Garcia, N., Arjona, O., Morales-Bojorquez, E., Mascaro, M., Simoes, N. and E. Palacios. 2014. Assessment of lipid classes and fatty acid levels in wild newborn seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) (Perry 1810): implications for survival and growth in aquarium culture. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 47:401-413.

Vite-Garcia, N., Simoes, N., Arjona, O., Mascaro, M. and E. Palacios. 2014. Growth and survival of Hippocampus erectus (Perry, 1810) juveniles fed on Artemia with different HUFA levels. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 42:150-159.

Wang, B., Zhang, Y., Zhang, H. and Q. Lin. 2014. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Barbour’s seahorse Hippocampus barbouri Jordan and Richardson, 1908 (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae). Mitochondrial DNA-Early online 1-2.

Wang, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, H., Meng, T. and Q. Lin. 2014. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933; Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae). Mitochondrial DNA early online:2.

Whitcombe, C.D. 2014. Dietary and stable isotope analyses reveal the role of kelp pipefish (Syngnathus californiensis), a presumed cryptic prey, in the diet of the elegant tern (Thalasseus elegans) in southern California waters. Thesis submitted to California State University, Fullerton:66pp.

Williams, S.A., Janetski, N., Abbott, J., Blankenhorn, S., Cheng, B., Crafton, R.E., Hameed, S.O., Rapi, S. and D. Trockel. 2014. Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: Seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Environmental Management 54(6):1342-1355.

Yip, M.Y., Lim, A.C.O., Chong, V.C., Lawson, J.M. and S.J. Foster. 2014. Food and feeding habits of the seahorses Hippocampus spinosissimus and Hippocampus trimaculatus (Malaysia). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K.-Early online:8.

Zhang, Y., Pham, N.K., Zhang, H., Lin, J. and Q. Lin. 2014. Genetic variations in two seahorse species (Hippocampus mohnikei and Hippocampus trimaculatus): Evidence for middle Pleistocene population expansion. PLoS ONE 9(8):e105494.

Zhanzhi, J., Xu, Y. and Y. Su. 2014. Preparation process of active enzymolysis polypeptides from seahorse bone meal. Food Science and Nutrition 2:490-499.


Anderson, P.A. and B.D. Petty. 2013. Mixed metazoan and bacterial infection of the gas bladder of the lined seahorse – A case report. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 25(1):42-52.

Aronsen, T., Mobley, K.B., Berglund, A., Sundin, J., Billing, A.M. and G. Rosenqvist. 2013. The operational sex ratio and density influence spatial relationships between breeding pipefish. Behavioral Ecology 24(4):888-897.

Baker, J.A., Räsänen, K., Moore, J. and A.P. Hendry. 2013. Genetic and plastic contributions to trait divergence between parapatric habitats: female life-history traits in threespine stickleback within the Misty Lake system. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15(2):473-487.

Barber, I. 2013. Sticklebacks as model hosts in ecological and evolutionary parasitology. Trends in Parasitology 29(11):556-566.

Bariche, M., Kajajian, A. and E. Azzurro. 2013. Reproduction of the invasive bluespotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii (Teleostei, Fistulariidae) in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology Research 9(2):169-180.

Boehm, J.T.W., Woodall, L., Teske, P.R., Lourie, S.A., Baldwin, C., Waldman, J. and M. Hickerson. 2013. Marine dispersal and barriers drive Atlantic seahorse diversification. Journal of Biogeography 40(10):1839-1849.

Caldwell, I.R. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2013. A sedentary fish on the move: effects of displacement on long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatis Cuvier) movement and habitat use. Environmental Biology of Fish 96(1):67-75.

Chakraborty, B., Saran, A.K., Kuncolienker, D.S., Sreepada, R.A., Haris, K. and W. Fernandes. 2013. Characterization of yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda feeding click sound signals in a laboratory environment: an application of probability density function and power spectral density analyses. Bioacoustics 23(1):1-14.

Chang, C., Lin, H.Y., Jang-Liaw, N.H., Shao, K.T., Lin, Y.S. and H.C. Ho. 2013. The complete mitochondrial genome of the tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes (Teleostei, Syngnathidae). Mitochondrial DNA 24(3):199-201.

Chang, C., Shao, K.T., Lin, Y.S. and Y.C. Liao. 2013. The complete mitochondrial genome of the three-spot seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae). Mitochondrial DNA 24(6):665-667.

Cicco, E.D., Paradis, E., Stephen, C., Turba, M.E. and G. Rossi. 2013. Scuticociliatid ciliate outbreak in Australian pot-bellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1827): Clinical signs, histopathologic findings, and treatment with metronidazole. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 44(4):435-440.

Cone, D.K.A., Appy, R., Baggett, L., King, S., Gilmore, S. and C. Abbott. 2013. A new Gyrodactylid (Monogenea) parasitizing bay pipefish (Syngnathus leptorhynchus) from the Pacific coast of North America. Journal of Parasitology 99(2):183-188.

Correia, M.P.,  Palma, J., Koldewey, H. and J.P. Andrade. 2013. Can artificial holdfast units work as a habitat restoration tool for long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier)? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology 448:258-264.

de Kermoysan, G., Péry, A.R., Porcher, J.M. and R. Beaudouin. 2013. A non-invasive method based on head morphology to sex mature three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) in rearing conditions. Mathematical Biosciences 244(2):148-153.

Dziubinska, A. and M. Sapota. 2013. Hydroid Gonothyraea loveni found on the straightnose pipefish (Nerophis ophidion) in the Gulf of Gdansk – symbiosis, parasitism, or biofouling? Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 42(3):332-335.

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Haase, D., Roth, O., Kalbe, M., Schmiedeskamp, G., Scharsack, J.P., Rosenstiel, P. and T.B. Reusch. 2013. Absence of major histocompatibility complex class II mediated immunity in pipefish, Syngnathus typhle: evidence from deep transcriptome sequencing. Biology Letters 34(8):1-6.

Harasti, D. and W. Gladstone. 2013. Does underwater flash photography affect the behavior, movement and site persistence of seahorses? Journal of Fish Biology 83(5):1344-1353.

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Hodgson, A., Black, A.R. and R. Hull. 2013. Sensory exploitation and indicator models may explain red pelvic spines in the brook stickleback, Culaea inconstant. Evolutionay Ecology Research 15(2):199-211.

Hubner, K., Gonzalez-Wanguemert, M., Diekmann, O.E. and E.A. Serrão. 2013. Genetic evidence for polygynandry in the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster: A microsatellite-based parentage analysis. Journal of Heredity 104(6):791-797.

Hue, N.T. and T.T. Tran. 2013. A DNA Extraction Method Applied for Living Seahorses. 4th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam 49:178-183.

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Karve, A.D., Baker, J.A. and F.A. von Hippel. 2013. Female life-history traits of a species pair of threespine stickleback in Mud Lake, Alaska. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15(2):171-187.

Keightley, M.C., Wong, B.B. and G.J. Lieschke. 2013. Immune priming: Mothering males modulate immunity. Current Biology 23(2):R76-R78.

Kiryukhina, N.A. 2013. Morphological variability in black-striped pipefish Syngnathus nigrolineatus in relation to its invasion into the Volga Basin reservoirs. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions 4(3):149-155.

Kitano, J. and S.C. Lema. 2013. Divergence in thyroid hormone concentrations between juveniles of marine and stream ecotypes of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Evolutionary Ecology Research 15(2):143-153.

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Lescak, E.A., von Hippel, F.A., Bernhardt, R.R. and M.A. Bell. 2013. Pelvic girdle reduction and asymmetry in threespine stickleback from Wallace Lake, Alaska. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15:155-170.

Lewisch, E., Kucera, M., Tappert, R., Tessadri, R., Tappert, M. and Kanz, F. 2013. Occurrence of nephrolithiasis in a population of longsnout seahorse, Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, and analysis of a nephrolith. Journal of Fish Diseases 36(2):163-167.

Martinez-Cardenas, L., Sumaya-Martinez, M.T., Valdez-Hernandez, E.F., Gonzalez-Diaz, A.A., Soria-Barreto, M., Castañeda-Chavez, M.R., Ruiz-Velazco, J.M. and E. Peña-Messina. 2013. Effect of temperature on growth and survival in juvenile oppossum pipefish, Microphis brachyurus: First observations on the species in culture conditions. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 44(5):735-742.

Mobley, K.B., Ruiz, R.C., Johansson, F. and G. Englund. 2013. No evidence that stickleback spines directly increase risk of predation by an invertebrate predator. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15(2):189-198.

Morgan, S.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2013. Life-history reference points for management of an exploited tropical seahorse. Marine and Freshwater Research 64(3):185-200.

Mwale, M., Kaiser, H., Barker, N.P., Wilson, A.B. and P.R. Teske. 2013. Identification of a uniquely southern African clade of coastal pipefishes Syngnathus spp. Journal of Fish Biology 82(6):2045-2062.

Myhren, S. 2013. Mate choice in straight-nosed pipefish (Nerophis ophidion) may be affected by increasing turbidity in the Baltic Sea. Thesis submitted to the Norwegian University of Science and Technology:26 pp.

Nazarkin, M.V., Yabumoto, Y. and A. Urabe. 2013. A new Miocene three-spined stickleback (Pisces: Gasterosteidae) from central Japan. Paleontological Research 16(4):318-328.

Park, J.P. 2013. Spatial learning ability of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in relation to inferred ecology and ancestry. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15(2):213-239.

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Pangestuti, R., Ryu, B.M., Himaya, S.W.A. and S.K. Kim. 2013. Optimization of hydrolysis conditions, isolation, and identification of neuroprotective peptides derived from seahorse Hippocampus trimaculatus. Amino Acids 45(2):369-381.

Partridge, C., Boettcher, A. and A.G. Jones. 2013. The role of courtship behavior and size in mate preference in the sex-role reversed gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. Ethology 119(8):692-701.

Pham, N.K. and J. Lin. 2013. The effects of different feed enrichments on survivorship and growth of early juvenile longsnout seahorse. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 44(3):435-446.

Porter, M.M., Novitskaya, E., Castro-Ceseña, A.B., Meyers, M.A. and J. McKittrick. 2013. Highly deformable bones: Unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor. Acta Biomaterialia 9(6):6763-6770.

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Foster, R., Bridge, T.C.L. and P. Bongaerts. 2012. The first record of Hippocampus denise (Syngnathidae) from Australia. Aqua international Journal of Ichthyology 18(1):55-57.

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Frommen, J.G., Bakker, T.C.M., Proscurcin, L. and M. Mehlis. 2012. Gravidity-Associated Shoaling Decisions in Three-Spined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Ethology 118(12):1149-1156.

Gambling, S.J. and T.E. Reimchen. 2012. Prolonged life span among endemic Gasterosteus populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 90(2):284-290.

Garcia, L.M.B., Hilomen-Garcia, G.V., Celino, F.T., Gonzales, T.T. and R.J. Maliao. 2012. Diet composition and feeding periodicity of the seahorse Hippocampus barbouri reared in illuminated sea cages. Aquaculture 358-359:1-5.

Georgieva, S., Kostadinova, A. and K. Skirnisson. 2012. The life-cycle of Petasiger islandicus Kostadinova & Skirnisson, 2007 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) elucidated with the aid of molecular data. Systematic Parasitology 82(3):177-183.

Goldberg, R., Mercaldo-Allen, R., Rose, J.M., Clark, P., Kuropat, C., Meseck, S. and J. Pereira. 2012. Effects of hydraulic shellfish dredging on the ecology of a cultivated clam bed. Aquaculture Environment Interactions 3(1):11-21.

Grandcourt, E. 2012. Reef Fish and Fisheries in the Gulf. Coral Reefs of the World 3:127-161.

Greenwood, A.K., Cech, J.N. and C.L. Peichel. 2012. Molecular and developmental contributions to divergent pigment patterns in marine and freshwater sticklebacks. Evolution & Development 14(4):351-362.

Gurkan, S. and E. Taskavak. 2012. Sexual dimorphism of the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, from Aegean Sea (Turkey). North-Western Journal of Zoology 8(1):41-45.

Gustafsson, C. and T. Salo. 2012. The effect of patch isolation on epifaunal colonization in two different seagrass ecosystems. Marine Biology 159(7):1497-1507.

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Hallett, C.S. and N.G. Hall. 2012. Equivalence factors for standardizing catch data across multiple beach seine nets to account for differences in relative bias. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science: 1-9.

Harasti, D., Martin-Smith, K. and W. Gladstone. 2012. Population dynamics and life history of a geographically restricted seahorse, Hippocampus whitei. Journal of Fish Biology 81(4):1297-1314.

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Heuschele, J., Salminena, T. and U. Candolina. 2012. Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks. Animal Behaviour 83(6):1505–1510.

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Johannesen, A., Dunn, A.M. and L.J. Morell. 2012. Olfactory cue use by three-spined sticklebacks foraging in turbid water: prey detection or prey location? Animal Behaviour 84(1):151-158.

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LePage, V., Dutton, C.J., Kummrow, M., McLelland, D.J., Young, K. and J.S. Lumsden. 2012. Neoplasia of Captive Yellow Sea Horses (Hippocampus kuda) and Weedy Sea Dragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 43:50-58.

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Martinez-Cardenas, L. and J.G. Purser. 2012. Substrate-attachment Preferences of Cultured Newborn Pot-bellied Seahorses, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1827). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 43:286-290.

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McCairns, R.J.S. and L. Bernatchez. 2012. Plasticity and heritability of morphological variation within and between parapatric stickleback demes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25(6):1097-1112.

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McGhee, K.E., Pintor, L.M., Suhr, E.L. and A.M. Bell. 2012. Maternal exposure to predation risk decreases offspring antipredator behaviour and survival in threespined stickleback. Functional Ecology 26(4):932-940.

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Mehlis, M., Frommen, J.G., Rahn, A.K. and T.C.M. Bakker. 2012. Inbreeding in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.): effects on testis and sperm traits. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 107(3):510-520.

Melanson, R.L. and C.E. Campbell. 2012. Near-Shore Fish Populations within St. Pauls Inlet, an Estuarine System in Western Newfoundland. Northeastern Naturalist 19(3):487-500.

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Mobley, K.B. and A.G. Jones. 2012. Overcoming Statistical Bias to Estimate Genetic Mating Systems in Open Populations: A Comparison of Bateman’s Principles between the Sexes in a Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish. Evolution 67(3):646-660.

Mol, J.H. 2012. Occurrence of a freshwater pipefish Pseudophallus cf. brasiliensis (Syngnathidae) in Corantijn River, Suriname, with notes on its distribution, habitat, and reproduction. International Journal of Ichthyology 36(1):45-53.

Morrell, L.J., Hentley, W.T., Wickens, V.J.,Wickens, J.B. and G.M. Rodgers. 2012. Artificial enhancement of an extended phenotype signal increases investment in courtship by three-spined sticklebacks. Animal Behaviour 84(1):93-101.

Natsopoulou, M.E., Pálsson, S. and G.Á. Ólafsdóttir. 2012. Parasites and parallel divergence of the number of individual MHC alleles between sympatric three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatusmorphs in Iceland. Journal of Fish Biology 81(5):1696-1714.

Neal, J.W., Adelsberger, C.M. and S.E. Lochmann. 2012. A Comparison of Larval Fish Sampling Methods for Tropical Streams. Marine and Coastal Fisheries 4(1):23-29.

Nickel, J. and R. Cursons. 2012. Genetic diversity and population structure of the pot-belly seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 46(2):1-12.

Flamarique, I.N., Cheng, C.L., Bergstrom, C. and T.E. Reimchen. 2012. Pronounced heritable variation and limited phenotypic plasticity in visual pigments and opsin expression of threespine stickleback photoreceptors. The Journal of Experimental Biology 216:656-667.

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Richardson, D.T. and P.J. Narguizian. 2012. Incorporating Captive Animal Behavior into the Conservation of Threatened Species, Hippocampus Ingens. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology 2(7):17-23.

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Wetherill, T. 2012. A feeding study of the Longsnout Seahorse, Hippocampus reidi. Aquaculture-Online:12pp.

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Ebeling J and Yasué M. 2009. The effectiveness of market-based conservation in the tropics: forest certification in Ecuador and Bolivia. Journal of Environmental Management 90:1145-1153.

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Goswami M, Thangaraj K, Chaudhary BK, Bhaskar LVSK, Gopalakrishnan A, Joshi MB, Singh L, and Lakra WS. 2009. Genetic heterogeneity in the Indian stocks of seahorse (Hippocampus kuda and Hippocampus trimaculatus) inferred from mtDNA cytochrome b gene.Hydrobiologia 621:213-221.

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Ishihara T and Tachihara K. 2009. The maturity and breeding season of the bellybarred pipefish, Hippichthys spicifer, in Okinawa-jima Island rivers.Ichthyological Research 56(4):388-393.

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Lin Q, Lin J, and Huang L. 2009. Effects of substrate color, light intensity and temperature on survival and skin color change of juvenile seahorses, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810.Aquaculture 298(1-2):157-161.

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Lopez MA and Gisbert E. 2009. Evaluation of a by-catch reduction device for glass eel fishing traps. Fisheries Management and Ecology 16(6):438-447.

Mai ACG and Rosa IL. 2009. Ecological aspects of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi in the Camurupim/Cardoso estuary, Piauí State, Brazil, as subsidies for the implementation of an Environmental Protection Area. Biota Neotropica 9:85-91.

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Murugan A, Dhanya S, Sreepada RA, Rajagopal S, and Balasubramanian T. 2009. Breeding and mass-scale rearing of three spotted seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach under captive conditions.Aquaculture 290(1-2):87-96.

Naud MJ, Curtis JMR, Woodall LC, and Gaspar MB. 2009. Mate choice, operational sex ratio, and social promiscuity in a wild population of the long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus.8 Behavioral Ecology 20(1):160-164.

Neumann H,Reiss H, Rakers S, Ehrich S, and Kroncke I. 2009. Temporal variability in southern North Sea epifauna communities after the cold winter of 1995/1996.Ices Journal of Marine Science 66(10):2233-2243.

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Otsuka Y, Suzuki H, and Akagawa I. 2009. Occurrence, gonad morphology and maturity of Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei in Matsushima Bay, Japan.Journal of the School of Marine Science and Technology Tokai University 7(1):11-22.

Ozaka C, Yamamoto N, and Somiya H. 2009. The aglomerular kidney of the deep-sea fish, Ateleopus japonicus (Ateleopodiformes: Ateleopodidae): Evidence of wider occurrence of the aglomerular condition in teleostei.Copeia(3):609-617.

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Qian Z, Ryu B, Kim M, and Kim S. 2009. Free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of the extracts from seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeler.Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 13(6):705-715.

Quintas P, Planas M, and Purser GJ. 2009. The effect of artemia enrichment on the early rearing of the pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Journal Of The World Aquaculture Society 3:1055-1056.

Randall JE and Lourie SA. 2009. Hippocampus tyro, a new seahorse (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae) from the Seychelles. Smithiana Bulletin 10:19-21.

Ratterman NL, Rosenthal GG, and Jones AG. 2009. Sex recognition via chemical cues in the sex-role-reversed Gulf Pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli).Ethology 115(4):339-346.

Rioux M. 2009. Poseidon’s Steed: The Story of Seahorses, from Myth to Reality.Library Journal 134(11):89-89.

Ripley JL. 2009. Osmoregulatory role of the paternal brood pouch for two Syngnathus species.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology- Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 154(1):98-104.

Ripley JL and Foran CM. 2009. Direct evidence for embryonic uptake of paternally-derived nutrients in two pipefishes (Syngnathidae: Syngnathus spp.).Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 179(3):325-333.

Ripley JL and Foran CM. 2009. Quantification of whole brain arginine vasotocin for two Syngnathus pipefishes: elevated concentrations correlated with paternal brooding. Fish Physiology Biochemistry 36(4):867-874.

Ripley JL and Foran CM. 2009. Elevated whole brain arginine vasotocin with Aroclor 1254 exposure in two Syngnathus pipefishes. Fish Physiology Biochemistry 36(4):917-921.

Roos G, Leysen H, Van Wassenbergh S, Herrel A, Jacobs P, Dierick M, Aerts P, and Adriaens D. 2009. Linking morphology and motion: a test of a four-bar mechanism in seahorses.Physiological Biochemical Zoology 82(1):7-19.

Roos G, Van Wassenbergh S, Herrel A, and Aerts P. 2009. Kinematics of suction feeding in the seahorse Hippocampus reidi.Journal of Experimental Biology 212(21):3490.

Scobell SK, Fudicker AM, and Knapp R. 2009. Potential reproductive rate of a sex-role reversed pipefish over several bouts of mating.Animal Behaviour 78(3):747-753.

Shine R, Greenlees M, Crossland M, and Nelson D. 2009. The myth of the toad-eating frog.Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7:359-361.

Shokri MR, Gladstone W, and Jelbart J. 2009. The effectiveness of seahorses and pipefish (Pisces: Syngnathidae) as a flagship group to evaluate the conservation value of estuarine seagrass beds.Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19(5):588-595.

Silva K, Almada VC, Vieira MN, and Monteiro NM. 2009. Female reproductive tactics in a sex-role reversed pipefish: scanning for male quality and number.Behavioral Ecology 20(4):768-772.

Smith T, Gibbs M, and Smith D. 2009. Fishing for more effective incentives. Science 323:337-337.

Storero LP and Gonzalez RA. 2009. Prey selectivity and trophic behavior of the Patagonian Seahorse, Hippocampus patagonicus, in captivity.Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 40(3):394-401.

Teske PR and Beheregaray LB. 2009. Evolution of seahorses’ upright posture was linked to Oligocene expansion of seagrass habitats.Biology Letters 5(4):521-523.

Thomas GH. 2009. Bergmann’s idiosyncratic rule: a role for fecundity selection?Molecular Ecology 18(6):1027-1029.

Turpie J, Joubert A, Babiker H, Chaudhry J, Child M, Hempson T, Humphrey G, Joseph G, La Grange R, Lipsey M, Mann G, Okes N, Puttick J, and Wistebaar T. 2009. Integrated Ecological-Economic Modelling as an Estuarine Management Tool: A Case Study of the East Kleinemonde Estuary. Report submitted to the Water Research Commission:65pp.

Van Wassenbergh, Roos G, and Aerts P. 2009. Pivot feeding performance in pipefish and seahorses analysed by forward dynamic modelling.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 153A(2):S125-S126.

Van Wassenbergh S, Roos G, Genbrugge A, Leysen H, Aerts P, Adriaens D, and Herrel A. 2009. Suction is kid’s play: extremely fast suction in newborn seahorses.Biology Letters 5(2): 200-203.

Weis JS, Weis P, MacDonald J, and Pearson L. 2009. Rapid changes in fish utilization of mangrove habitat in Western Madagascar.Wetlands Ecology and Management 17(4):345-354.

Wilson AB. 2009. Fecundity selection predicts Bergmann’s rule in syngnathid fishes.Molecular Ecology 18(6):1263-1272.

Wilson AB. 2009. Opening Pandora’s box: comparative studies of genetic mating systems reveal reproductive complexity.Molecular Ecology 18(7):1307-1309.

Woodall LC, Koldewey HJ, Santos SV, and Shaw PW. 2009. First occurrence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean.Journal of Fish Biology 75:1505-1512.

Yasué M and Dearden P. 2009. The importance of supratidal habitats for wintering shorebirds and the potential impacts of shrimp aquaculture.Environmental Management 43(6):1108-1121.

Zalohar J, Hitij T, and Kriznar M. 2009. Two new species of seahorses (Syngnathidae, Hippocampus) from the Middle Miocene (Sarmatian) Coprolitic Horizon in Tunjice Hills, Slovenia: The oldest fossil record of seahorses.Annales De Paleontologie 95(2):71-96.


Ahnesjo I. 2008. Behavioural temperature preference in a brooding male pipefish Syngnathus typhle.Journal of Fish Biology 73(4):1039-1045.

Anonymous. 2008. Pipefish – No substitute for sandeels if you are a hungry seabird.British Birds 101(7):376-377.

Astporsson OS and Palsson J. 2008. Recent increase in snake pipefish (Entelurus aequoreus) in Icelandic waters. Natturufraedingurinn 77(1-2):59-62.

Baine MSP, Barrow APW, Ganiga G, and Martin-Smith KM. 2008. Residence and movement of pygmy seahorses, Hippocampus bargibanti, on sea fans (Muricella spp.).Coral Reefs 27(2):421-421.

Ban NC and Alder J. 2008. How wild is the ocean? Assessing the intensity of anthropogenic marine activities in British Columbia , Canada.Main 85:55-85.

Ban NC, Picard C, and Vincent ACJ. 2008. Moving Toward Spatial Solutions in Marine Conservation with Indigenous Communities. Ecology And Society 13:32pp.

Ben Amor MM, Ben Salem M, Ben Souissi J, and Capape C.. 2008. Occurrence of Nilsson’s Pipefish Syngnathus Rostellatus (Osteichthyes: Syngnathidae) in the Gulf of Tunis (Central Mediterranean).Vie Et Milieu-Life and Environment 58(3-4):189-192.

Bijukumar A, Abraham KM, and Soumya D. 2008. Morphometry and Meristics of Longnose Seahorse, Hippocampus Trimaculatus (Actinopterygii: Syngnathidae), from Kerala, South-West Coast of India.Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria 38(2):149-155.

Browne RK, Baker JL, and Connolly RM. 2008. Chapter 13: Syngnathids: Seadragons, Seahorses, and Pipefishes of Gulf St Vincent. Natural history of Gulf St Vincent.Royal Society of South Australia (Inc):162-176.

Bruner R and Bartolino V. 2008. Morphological Variation in the Seahorse Vertebral System. International Journal of Morphology 26(2):247-262.

Castro AL, Diniz A, Martins IZ, Vendel AL, Oliveria TPR, and Rosa IML. 2008. Assessing diet composition of seahorses in the wild using a non destructive method: Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) as a study-case. Neotropical Ichthyology 6(4):637-644.

Clynick BG 2008. Harbour swimming nets: a novel habitat for seahorses.Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18(5):483-492.

Curtis JMR and Vincent ACJ. 2008. Use of Population Viability Analysis to Evaluate CITES Trade-Management Options for Threatened Marine Fishes. Conservation Biology 22(5):1225-1232.

Dzyuba BB, Van Look KJ, Kholodnyy VS, Satake N, Cheung S, and Holt WV. 2008. Variable sperm size and motility activation in the pipefish, Syngnathus abaster; adaptations to paternal care or environmental plasticity?Reproduction Fertilization and Development 20(4):474-482.

Ebeling J and Yasué M. 2008. Generating carbon finance through avoided deforestation and its potential to create climatic, conservation and human development benefits.Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 363:1917-1924.

Faleiro F, Narciso L, and Vicente L. 2008. Seahorse behaviour and aquaculture: How to improve Hippocampus guttulatus husbandry and reproduction?Aquaculture 282(1-4):33-40.

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Forsgren KL and Young KA. 2008. Gonadal morphology of the weedy seadragon, Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepede): characterisation of ovarian and testicular maturation.Australian Journal of Zoology 56(6):441-446.

Freret-Meurer NV and Andreata JV. 2008. Field studies of a Brazilian Seahorse population, Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933.Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 51(4):743-751.

Gehring G and Ruffing E. 2008. When arguments prevail over power: The CITES procedure for the listing of endangered species. Global Environmental Politics 8(2):27pp.

Harris MP, Newell M, Daunt F, and Speakman JR. 2008. Snake Pipefish Entelurus aequoreus are poor food for seabirds.Ibis 150(2):413-415.

Ishihara T and Tachihara K. 2008. Reproduction and early development of a freshwater pipefish Microphis leiaspis in Okinawa-jima Island, Japan.Ichthyological Research 55(4):349-355.

James NC, Whitfield AK, and Cowley PD. 2008. Preliminary indications of climate-induced change in a warm-temperate South African estuarine fish community. Journal of Fish Biology 72:1855-1863.

James NC, Whitfield AK, and Cowley PD. 2008. Long-term stability of the fish assemblages in a warm-temperate South African estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 76:723-738.

Kawahara R, Miya M, Mabuchi K, Lavoué S, Inoue JG, Satoh TP, Kawaguchi A, and Nishida M. 2008. Interrelationships of the 11 gasterosteiform families (sticklebacks, pipefishes, and their relatives): A new perspective based on whole mitogenome sequences from 75 higher teleosts.Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46(1):224-236.

Kéry M and Schmidt B. 2008. Imperfect detection and its consequences for monitoring for conservation. Community Ecology 9(2):207-216.

Kitsos MS, Tzomos T, Anagnostopoulou L, and Koukouras A. 2008. Diet composition of the seahorses, Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier, 1829 and Hippocampus hippocampus (L., 1758) (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) in the Aegean Sea. Journal of Fish Biology 72(6):1259-1267.

Krupczynski R. 2008. Diversity of fin-activation patterns in the longsnout seahorse, Hippocampus reidi. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology a-Molecular & Integrative Physiology 150(3):S108-S109.

Li Y, Qian Z, and Kim S. 2008. Cathepsin B inhibitory activities of three new phthalate derivatives isolated from seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeler.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 18(23):6130-6134.

Lin Q, Lin J, and Zhang D. 2008. Breeding and juvenile culture of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry,1810. Aquaculture 277(3-4):287-292.

Lin Q, Lin J, Lu J, and Li B. 2008. Biochemical composition of six seahorse species, Hippocampus sp., from the Chinese coast.Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 39(2):225-234.

Lourie SA and Kuiter RH. 2008. Three new pygmy seahorse species from Indonesia (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus).Zootaxa 68:54-68.

Lunn K, Noriega VMJ, and Vincent ACJ. 2008. Souvenirs from the sea: an investigation into the curio trade in echinoderms from Mexico.Traffic Bull 22:19-32.

Martinez-Cardenas L, Porter M, and Purser GJ. 2008. Light-dark variations in plasma melatonin concentrations in the pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson, 1827. Journal of Fish Biology 72(7):1799-1803.

Morgan SK, Curtis JMR, and Vincent ACJ. 2008. Axes of excellence: a role for students as community-engaged scholars.Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6:105-106.

Morgan SK and Panes HM. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 (Syngnathidae).Environmental Biology of Fishes 82(1):21-22.

Murugan A, Dhanya S, and Rajagopal S. 2008. Seahorses and pipefishes of the Tamil Nadu coast.Current Science 95(2):253-260.

Nadeau JL, Curtis JMR, and Lourie SA. 2008. Preservation causes shrinkage in seahorses: implications for biological studies and for managing sustainable trade with minimum size limits.Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19(4):428-438.

Naud MJ, Curtis JMR, Woodall LC, and Gaspar MB. 2008. Mate choice, operational sex ratio, and social promiscuity in a wild population of the long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Behavioral Ecology 20:160-164.

Okuzawa K, Maliao RJ, Quinitio ET, Buen-Ursua SMA, Lebata MJHL, Gallardo WG, Garcia LMB, and Primavera JH. 2008. Stock enhancement of threatened species in Southeast Asia. Reviews in Fisheries Science 16(1-3):394-402.

Olivotto I, Avella MA, Sampaolesi G, Piccinetti CC, Ruiz PN, and Carnevali O. 2008. Breeding and rearing the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi: Rearing and feeding studies.Aquaculture 283(1-4):92-96.

Palma J, Stockdale J, Correia M, and Andrade JP. 2008. Growth and survival of adult long snout seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) using frozen diets.Aquaculture 278(1-4):55-59.

Patron JJ, Herrera AA, Oconer EP. 2008. Prolactin and growth hormone levels in the pouch fluid of gravid male seahorse, Hipocampus barbouri Jordan and Richardson 1908.Asia Life Sciences 17(2):261-269.

Planas M, Chamorro A, Quintas P, and Vilar A. 2008. Establishment and maintenance of threatened long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus, broodstock in captivity.Aquaculture 283:19-28.

Polte P and Buschbaum C. 2008. Native pipefish Entelurus aequoreus are promoted by the introduced seaweed Sargassum muticum in the northern Wadden Sea, North Sea.Aquatic Biology 3(1):11-18.

Qian ZJ, Ryu B, Kim M, and Kim S. 2008. Free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of the extracts from seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeler.Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 13(6):705-715.

Ripley JL and Foran CM. 2008. Interspecific differences of parental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure on nutrient availability, egg production and brooding in two Syngnathus species. Journal of Fish Biology 72(6):1369-1385.

Rispoli VF and Wilson AB. 2008. Sexual size dimorphism predicts the frequency of multiple mating in the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle.Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21(1):30-38.

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Power, M. and M. J. Attril. 2003. Long-term trends in the estuarine abundance of Nilsson’s pipefish (Syngnathus rostellatus Nilsson). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 57:325-333.

Riccato, F., et al. 2003. Population structure and reproduction of three pipefish species (Pisces, Syngnathidae) in a sea grass meadow of the Venice Lagoon.Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10(2, pt. 1):138-145.

Rozelle, J. 2003. Use of gas chromotography in the elucidation or carbohydrates in the bodily fluid of the gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. 225th ACS National Meeting, New Orleans, LA, USA, March 23-27, 2003.

Rudershausen, P. J., et al. 2003. A survey of epifauna among macrophytes in a southwest Florida Estuary.Florida Scientist 66(3):168.

Sakabe, R. 2003. Abundance and feeding ecology of pipefish associated with seagrass habitat: Relationships between habitat structure, pipefish and motile epifauna. Thesis submitted to the University of Tasmania:59pp.

Sales, J. and G. P. J. Janssens. 2003. Nutrient requirements of ornamental fish.Aquatic Living Resources/Ressources Vivantes Aquatiques 16(6):533-540.

Salin, K. R. 2003. Reproductive biology and larval rearing of Hippocampus kuda, and the taxonomy of seahorses (hippocampus spp.) along the southern coast of India (TH 124). PhD thesis submitted to the Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai:234pp.

Shapawi, R. and G. J. Purser. 2003. The Value of enriched Artemia in supporting growth and survival of juvenile Pot-bellied Seahorses Hippocampus abdominalis. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34(4):533-541.

Takahasi, E., et al. 2003. Growth and reproduction of double-ended pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus, in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia.Environmental Biology of Fishes 67:23-33.

Teske, P. R., et al. 2003. Population genetics of the endangered Knysna seahorse, Hippocampus capensis.Molecular Ecology 12:1703-1715.

UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 2003. From Ocean to Aquarium: the global trade in marine ornamental species.UNEP-Publications:64pp.

Vincent, A. C. J. and B. Giles. 2003. Correlates of reproductive success in a wild population of Hippocampus whitei. Journal of Fish Biology 63(2):344-355.

Wabnitz, C., et al. 2003. From Ocean to Aquarium. UNEP-WCMC:66pp.

**Warland, T. 2003. Seahorses: How to care for your seahorses in the marine aquarium: a stable environment for your seahorse. Port Lincoln, South Australia, South Australian Seahorse Marine Services.

**Wei, X., et al. 2003. Effects of foods on growth of young sea horses (Hippocampus). Acta scientiarum naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni/Zhongshan Daxue Xuebao 42(3):60-63.

Wells, R. J. D. and J. R. Rooker. 2003. Distribution and abundance of fishes associated with Sargassum mats in the NW Gulf of Mexico. Proceedings of the Fifty-Fourth Annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute(54):609-621.

Wilson, A. B., et al. 2003. The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns, and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae).Evolution 57:1374-1386.

Wong, J. M. and J. A. H. Benzie. 2003. The effects of temperature, Artemia enrichment, stocking density and light on the growth of juvenile seahorses, Hippocampus whitei (Bleeker, 1855), from Australia.Aquaculture 228(1-4):107-121.

**Woods, C. 2003. Food matters for seahorses.

Woods, C., et al. 2003. Dads going it alone – Fertility and seahorses.Seafood New Zealand 11(5):42-43.

Woods, C. C. and F. Valentino. 2003. Frozen mysids as an alternative to live Artemia in culturing seahorses Hippocampus abdominalis.Aquaculture Research 34(9):757-763.

Woods, C. M. 2003. Effect of stocking density and gender segregation in the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Aquaculture 218(1-4):167-176.

Woods, C. M. 2003. Effects of varying Artemia enrichment on growth and survival of juvenile seahorses, Hippocampus abdominalis.Aquaculture 220(1-4):537-548.

Woods, C. M. 2003. Growth and survival of juvenile seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis reared on live, frozen and artificial foods.Aquaculture 220(1-4):287-298.

Zhang, N., et al. 2003. Molecular profile of the unique species of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese seahorse (Hippocampus kuda Bleeker).FEBS Letters 550(1-3):124-134.

Earlier publications

Anon. (2002). Hippocampus erectus; Hippocampus ingens; Hippocampus reidi. Libro rojo de peces marinos de Colombia. M. Luz Stella Mejia and P. Arturo Acero: 77-83.

Ashley-Ross, M. A. (2002). “Mechanical properties of the dorsal fin muscle of seahorse (Hippocampus) and pipefish (Syngnathus).” Journal of Experimental Zoology 293(6): 561-577.

Bell, S. S., et al. (2002). “Assessing the impact of boat propeller scars on fish and shrimp utilizing seagrass beds.” Ecological Applications 12(1): 206-217.

Britz, R. and G. D. Johnson (2002). “‘Paradox Lost’: Skeletal Ontogeny of Indostomus Paradoxus and Its Significance for the Phylogenetic Relationships of Indostomidae (Teleostei, Gasterosteiformes).” American Museum Novitates. New York NY(3383): 1-43.

Bull, C. e. (2002). Seahorse husbandry in public aquaria: 2002 Manual, with chapters contributed by members of the Syngnathid discussion group. John G. Shedd Aquarium. Chicago, Illinois.

Burke, L., et al. (2002). Reefs at Risk in Southeast Asia, World Resource Institutue.

Cakic, P., et al. (2002). “Biometric analysis of Syngnathus abaster populations.” Journal of fish biology 60(6): 1562-1569.

Carcupino, M., et al. (2002). “Functional significance of the male brood pouch in the reproductive strategies of pipefishes and seahorses: a morphological and ultrastructural comparative study on three anatomically different brood pouches.” Journal of Fish Biology 61: 1465-1480.

Chenoweth, S. F., et al. (2002). “Phylogeography of the pipefish, Urocampus carinirostris, suggests secondary intergradation of ancient lineages.” Marine Biology 141: 541-547.

Chu, M., et al. (2002). “Social and genetic monogamy in territorial and loosely colonial populations of Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens).” Auk 119(3): 770-777.

Connolly, R. (2002). Protection and movement of leafy seadragons, Coast and Seas, in collaboration with South Australia Research and Development Institute: 21.

Connolly, R. M., et al. (2002). “Abundance, movement and individual identification of leafy seadragons, Phycodurus eques (Pices: Syngnathidae).” Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 777-780.

Connolly, R. M., et al. (2002). “Patterns of movement and habitat use by leafy seadragons tracked ultrasonically.” Journal of Fish Biology 61: 684-695.

Cowley, P. D. and A. K. Whitfield (2002). “Biomass and production estimates of a fish community in a small South African estuary.” Journal of Fish Biology 61: 74-89.

D’Entremont, J. (2002). Sex-related differences in feeding behaviour and diet in Hippocampus guttulatus. Biology. Montreal, McGill University: 25.

Denney, N. H., et al. (2002). “Life-history correlates of maximum population growth rates in marine fishes.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269: 2229-2237.

DePraeter, A. (2002). Morphometric variability in Hippocampus erectus along the western Atlantic coast. Biology. Montreal, McGill University: 41.

Dias, T. L., et al. (2002). “Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 (Syngnathidae).” Environmental Biology of Fishes 65(3): 326-326.

Dickson, B. (2002). International conservation treaties, poverty and development: The case of CITES. Natural Resource Perspectives. O. D. Institute. London, UK. 74.

Douglas-Helders, G. M., et al. (2002). “Wild fish are not a significant reservoir for Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis (Page, 1987).” Journal of Fish Diseases 25(10): 569-574.

Fritsches, K. A. and N. J. Marshall (2002). “Independant and conjugate eye movements during optokenesis in teleost fish.” The Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 1241-2352.

Gill, A. C. and J. M. Kemp (2002). “Widespead Indo-Pacific shore-fish species: a challenge for taxonomists, biogeographers, ecologists, and fishery and conservation managers.” Environmental Biology of Fishes 65: 165-174.

Ginsberg, J. (2002). “CITES at 30, or 40.” Conservation Biology 16(5): 1184-1191.

Goater, T. M. and S. F. Jepps (2002). “Prevalence and intensity of Haemobaphes diceraus (Copepoda: Pennellidae) from Shiner Perch, Cymatogaster aggregata (Embiotocidae).” The Journal of Parasitology 88(1): 194-197.

Golani, D. and M. Fine (2002). “On the occurrence of Hippocampus fuscus in the eastern Mediterranean.” Journal of Fish Biology 60(3): 764-766.

Green, C., et al. (2002). Developing techniques to mark otoloths of hatchery-reared pot-bellied seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) using strontium chloride. Victoria, Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute: 22.

Greño, J. S.-C. (2002). Ecology of the weedy seadragon Phyllopteryx taeniolatus. Departamento de Biologia Animal. Barcelona, Universidad de Barcelona: 62.

Grosholz, E. (2002). “Ecological and evolutionary consequences of coastal invastions.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17(1): 22-27.

Gubrium, J. F. and J. A. Holstein (2002). Handbook of Interview Research: Context and Method. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Gullström, M., et al. (2002). “Seagrass ecosystems in the western Indian Ocean.” Ambio 31(7-8): 588-569.

Hadderingh, R. H. and Z. Jager (2002). “Comparison of fish impingement by a thermal power station with fish populations in the Ems Estuary.” Journal of Fish Biology 61(S1): 105-124.

Haskell, J. P., et al. (2002). “Fractal geometry predicts verying body size scaling relationships for mammal and bird home ranges.” Nature 418(1 Aug 2002): 527-530.

Herkenrath, P. (2002). “The implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity – a non-government perspective ten years on.” Review of European Community & International Environmental Law 11(1): 29-37.

Hiddink, J. G. and Z. Jager (2002). “Abundance and reproduction of Nilsson’s pipefish on tidal flats.” Journal of Fish Biology 61(Supplement A): 125-137.

Hippel, F. A. V. and W. V. Hippel (2002). “Sex, drugs and animal parts: will Viagra save threatened species?” Environmental Conservation 29(3): 227-281.

Job, S. D., et al. (2002). “Culturing the oceanic seahorse, Hippocampus kuda.” Aquaculture 214: 333-341.

Johansen, H. P. (2002). “CITES Listing Criteria and Fisheries Management – A Cause for Concern.” In. IWMC World Conservation Trust.

Jun-yi, L., et al. (2002). “The ingestion, growth and ecological conversion efficiency of Hippocampus kuda under tile intensive rearing conditions.” Journal of Fishery Sciences of China (in Chinese) 26(1): 61-66.

Libertini, A., et al. (2002). “Genome size and Adenine-Thymine DNA nuclear content in three species of the genus Syngnathus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae).” Biologia marina mediterranea 9(1, pt. 2): 763-765.

Lipton, A. P. and M. Thangaraj (2002). Present status of seahorses fishing along the Palk Bay coast of Tamilnadu. Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series. N. G. Menon and N. Venugopal, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 174: 5-8.

Lu, W.-I. (2002). The phylogenetic relationship of five seamoth species with some biological aspects of Pegasus volitans. Marine Biology. Taiwan ROC, National Sun Yat-Sen University (NSYSU).

Martin-Smith, K. M. and J. D. Armstrong (2002). “Growth rates of wild stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon correlate with activity and sex but not dominance.” Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 413-423.

Mathews, L. M. (2002). “Tests of the mate-guarding hypothesis for social monogamy: Does population density, sex ratio, or female synchrony affect behavior of male snapping shrimp (Alpheus angulatus)?” Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 51(5): 426-432.

May, B. and T. Tomoda (2002). “Seahorses in the Ben cao gang mu and in contemporary Chinese medicine.” Journal of the Australian Chinese Medicine Education and Research Council, Ltd. March 2002: 1-12.

Monteiro, N. M., et al. (2002). “Activity rhythms and cyclical changes of microhabitat preferences in the intertidal pipefish Nerophis lumbriciformis (Pisces: Syngnathidae).” Acta Ethol 5: 39-43.

Monteiro, N. M., et al. (2002). “The courtship behaviour of the pipefish Nerophis lumbriciformis: reflections of an adaptation to intertidal life.” Acta Ethol 4: 109-111.

Morley, J. I. and S. Balshine (2002). “Faithful fish: Territory and mate defence favour monogamy in an African cichlid fish.” Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 52(4): 326-331.

Perante, N. C., et al. (2002). “Biology of a seahorse species, Hippocampus comes in the central Philippines.” Journal of Fish Biology 60: 821-837.

Perez-Oconer, E. (2002). Reproductive biology and gestation of the male seahorse, Hippocampus barbouri (Jordan and Richardson 1908). Quezon City, University of the Philippines.

Pogonoski, J., et al. (2002). Conservation overview and action plan for Australian threatened and potentially threatened marine and estuarine fishes, Environment Australia.

Potoschi, A., et al. (2002). “Fish fauna census in the ponds of Cape Peloro (NE of Sicily).” Biologia marina mediterranea 9(1, pt. 2): 785-788.

Pröhl, H. (2002). “Population differences in female resource abundance, adult sex ratio, and male mating success in Dendrobates pumilio.” Behavioral Ecology 13(2): 175-181.

Raymakers, C. (2002). “International trade in Sturgeon and Paddlefish species – the effect of CITES listing.” International Review of Hydrobiology 87(5-6): 525-537.

Rosa, I. L., et al. (2002). “Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933 (Syngnathidae).” Enviro. Biol. Fishes 64: 738.

Rothan, F. (2002). “Sea Horse Planet.” Oceanorama.Institut oceanographique Paul Ricard(32): 29-34.

Saunders, D. L., et al. (2002). “Freshwater protected areas: strategies for conservation.” Conservation Biology 16(1): 30-41.

Schmid, M. S. and D. G. Senn (2002). “Seahorses – Masters of adaptation.” Vie Et Milieu-Life and Environment 52(4): 201-207.

Sreepada, R. A., et al. (2002). “The plight of Indian sea horses: Need for conservation and management.” Current Science 28(4): 336-337.

Su, J., et al. (2002). “A study on specification of import Hippocampus.” Chinese journal of marine drugs/Zhongguo Haiyang Yaowu 21(5): 54-56.

Tlusty, M. (2002). “The benefits and risks of aquaculture production for the aquarium trade.” Aquaculture 205: 203-219.

Utter, F. and J. Epifanio (2002). “Marine aquaculture: Genetic potentialities and pitfalls.” Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 12(1): 59-77.

Warland, T. (2002). “Husbandry of Pot-Bellied Seahorses H. abdominalis.” Today’s Aquarist 7(5, pp. 5-7): 13.

Watanabe, S. and Y. Watanabe (2002). “Relationship between male size and newborn size in seaweed pipefish, Syngnathus schlegeli.” Environmental biology of fishes 65: 319-325.

WHO (2002). “WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy (2002-2005).” World Health Organization.

Woods, C. (2002). “Seahorse culture.” Seafood New Zealand 10(1): 25-26.

Woods, C. M. C. (2002). “Natural diet of the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis.” New Zealand journal of marine and freshwater research 36: 655-660.

Yan, J., et al. (2002). “Medicinal values of Hippocampus.” Chinese journal of marine drugs/Zhongguo Haiyang Yaowu 21(6): 48-52.

Zentner, J. (2002). Seahorse Tales. Tropical Fish Hobbyist. June 2002: 94-100.

Fritzche, R. A. and A. C. J. Vincent (2002 [published 2003]). Family Syngnathidae: Pipefishes and seahorses. FAO Species Indentification Sheets for Fishery Purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. K. Carpenter. Rome, FAO United Nations: 1221-1225.

(2001). Marine Ornamentals “Collection, Culture and Conservation”. Marine Ornamentals “Collection, Culture and Conservation”, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA, Florida Sea Grant College Program.

Adams, M. B., et al. (2001). “Effect of acute and chronic ammonia and nitrite exposure on oxygen consumption and growth of juvenile big bellied seahorse.” Journal of fish biology 58(3): 848-860.

Alcaide, E., et al. (2001). “Vibrio harveyi causes disease in seahorse, Hippocampus sp.” Journal of Fish Diseases 24(5): 311-313.

Appleford, P. (2001). “Aquaculture research and training in the tropics.” World Aquaculture 32(1): 13-17.

Berglund, A. and G. Rosenqvist (2001). “Male pipefish prefer dominant over attractive females.” behavioral ecology 12(4): 402-406.

Berzins, I. and M. Greenwell (2001). An Overview of Common Syngnathid Health Problems. Building 803 McCarty Drive PO Box 110400 Gainsville FL 32611 USA, Florida Sea Grant College Program.

Boer, W. F. d., et al. (2001). “the impact of artisanal fishery on a tropical intertidal benthic fish community.” Environmental biology of fishes 61: 213-229….

Bowles, D. R. J. (2001). The nature of the bycatch fishery of Solegnathus spp. (pipehorses) in NSW demersal trawl fisheries.

Bruckner, A. W. (2001). “Tracking the Trade in Ornamental Coral Reef Organisms: The Importance of CITES and its Limitations.” Aquarium Sciences and Conservation 3(1): 79-94.

Bulman, C., et al. (2001). “Siets and trophic guilds of demersal fishes of the South-Australian shelf.” Mar. Freshwater Res. 52: 537-548.

Chang, M. and P. C. Southgate (2001). “Effects of varying dietary fatty acid composition on growth and survival of seahorse, Hippocampus sp., juveniles.” Aquarium Science and Conservation 3: 205-214.

Chuang-Dobbs, H. C., et al. (2001). “The effectiveness of mate guarding by male black-throated blue warblers.” Behavioral Ecology 12(5): 541-546.

Connolly, R. M., et al. (2001). Trawl bycatch of syngnathids in Queensland: catch rates, distribution and population biology of Solegnathus pipehorses (seadragons). School of Environmental and Applied Sciences, Griffith University, Gold Coast: 57.

Consi, T. R., et al. (2001). “The dorsal fin engine of the seahorse (Hippocampus sp.).” journal of morphology 248: 80-97.

Cowley, P. D. and A. K. Whitefield (2001). “ichthyofaunal characteristics of a typical temporarily open/closed estuary on the southeast coast of South Africa.” Ichthyological bulletin 71: 1-19.

deBruyn, A. M. H. and J. J. Meeuwig (2001). “Detecting lunar cycles in marine ecology: periodic regression vs. categorical ANOVA.” Marine Ecology Progress Series 214: 307-310.

Forteath, N. (2001). Mariculture of aquarium fishes. Harcourt Science & Technology, Harcourt Place, 32 Jamestown Road London NW1 7BY UK, [URL:, Academic Press.

Frias-Torres, S. (2001). Cross-shelf transport of the migratory opossum pipefish, Microphis brachyurus lineatus.

Gardner, T. (2001). The Copepod/Artemia Tradeoff in the Captive Culture of Hippocampus erectus (Syngnathidae). Building 803 McCarty Drive PO Box 110400 Gainsville FL 32611 USA, Florida Sea Grant College Program.

Hall, H. and D. Warmolts (2001). The Role of Public Aquaria in the Conservation and Sustainability of the Marine Ornamentals Trade. Building 803 McCarty Drive PO Box 110400 Gainsville FL 32611 USA, Florida Sea Grant College Program.

Hardling, R. and A. Kaitala (2001). “Conflict of interest between sexes over cooperation: a supergame on egg carrying and mating in a coreid bug.” Behav.Ecol. 12(6): 659-665.

Hilomen-Garcia, G., et al. (2001). Tolerance and growth of juvenile seahorse Hippocampus kuda exposed to various salinities. 143 J.M Parker Coliseum Louisiana State University Baton Rouge LA 70803 USA, World Aquaculture Society.

Hindell, S. J., et al. (2001). “Spatial and temporal variability in the effects of fish predation on macrofauna in relation to habitat complexity and cage effects.” Marine Ecology Progress Series 224: Vol. 224, p.

Horne, M. L. (2001). “A new seahorse species (Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from the Great Barrier Reef.” Records of the Australian Museum 53: 243-246.

Houde, A. E. (2001). “sex roles, ornaments and evolutionary explanation.” proceedings of the national academy of sciences of the USA 98(23): 12857-12859.

Hutchings, J. A. (2001). “Conservation biology of marine fishes: Perceptions and caveats regarding assignment of extinction risk.” Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58(1): 108-121.

Iucn (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. World, IUCN Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, United Kingdom.

James, P. and C. Woods (2001). rearing seahorses: does temperature matter? aquaculture update. 28: 9-10.

Jamieson, G. S. and C. O. Levings (2001). “Marine protected areas in Canada – implications for both conservation and fisheries management.” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sc. 58: 138-156.

Jones, A. G. and J. C. Vise (2001). “Mating systems and sexual selection in male-pregnant pipefishes and seahorses: insights from microsatellite-based studies of maternity.” The journal of heredity 92(2): 150-158.

Jones, A. G., et al. (2001). “Genetic evidence for extreme polyandry and extraordinary sex-role reversal in a pipefish.” Proc.R.Soc.Lond.B 268: 2531-2535.

Kanou, K. and H. Kohno (2001). “Early life history of a seahorse, Hippocampus mohnikei, in Tokyo Bay, Japan.” Icthyological research 48: 361-368.

Kelt, D. A. and V. D. H. Van (2001). “The ecology and macroecology of mammalian home range area.” American Naturalist 157(6): 637-645.

Kokko, H. and P. Monaghan (2001). “Predicting the direction of sexual selection.” Ecology Letters 4(2): 159-165.

Komdeur, J. (2001). “Mate guarding in the Seychelles warbler is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London – Series B: Biological Sciences 268(1481): 2103-2111.

Kornienko, E. (2001). “Reproduction and development in some genera of pipefish and seahorses of the family Syngnathidae.” Russian Journal of Marine Biology 27: 15-26.

Kornienko, E. S. (2001). “The spawning behaviour of the pipefish Syngnathus acusimilis.” Russian Journal of Marine Biology 27(1): 54-57.

Kuiter, R. H. (2001). “Revision of the Australian seahorses of the genus Hippocampus (Sygnathioformes: Syngnathidae) with a description of nine new species.” Records of the Australian museum 53: 293-340.

Lourie, S. A. (2001). Seahoreses (Genus Hippocampus) of Indonesia, Project Seahorse: 25.

Lourie, S. A. (2001). Seahorses (Genus Hippocampus) of Indonesia, McGill University.

Lu, J.-y., et al. (2001). “Growth rate of Hippocampus kuda under intensive culture.” Journal of Fisheries Sciences of China 8(1): 59-63.

Lyons, D. O. (2001). Aspects of the biology and ecology of the worm pipefish, Nerophis lumbriciformis (Jenyns, 1836) (Osteichthyes: Syngnathidae), on the West Coast or Ireland. Department of Zoology. Galway, National University of Ireland: 183+Bibliography & Appendix.

Maan, M. E., et al. (2001). “Escalated fighting despite predictors of conflict outcome: Solving the paradox in a South American cichlid fish.” Animal Behaviour 62(4): 623-634.

Masonjones, H. D. (2001). “The effects of social context and reproductive status on the metabolic rates of dwarf seahorses (Hippocampus zosterae).” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 129: 541-555.

Matsumoto, K. and Y. Yanagisawa (2001). “Monogamy and sex role revesal in the pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus.” Animal Behaviour 61: 163-170.

Mccoy, E. E., et al. (2001). “The genetic mating system and tests for cuckoldry in a pipefish species in which males fertilize eggs and brood offspring externally.” Molecular ecology 10(7): 1793-1800.

Monteiro, N., et al. (2001). “The breeding ecology of the pipefish Nephrosis lumbriciformis and its relation to latitude and water temperature.” J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK 81: 1031-1033.

Moravec, F., et al. (2001). “Syngnathinema californiense N. Gen., N. Sp. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) from the circulatory system of the Bay Pipefish Syngnathus Leptorhynchus in California.” J. Parasitology 87(6): 1429-1432.

Muthuwan, V., et al. (2001). Delay Feeding and Feeding Regimes Effect Survival of Young Seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeker. Building 803 McCarty Drive PO Box 110400 Gainsville FL 32611 USA, Florida Sea Grant College Program.

Páez-Osuna, F. (2001). “The environmental impact of shrimp aquaculture: Causes, effects, and mitigating alternatives.” Environmental Management 28(1): 131-140.

Payne, M. (2001). Rearing the Coral Seahorse, Hippocampus barbouri, on Inert Prey. Building 803 McCarty Drive PO Box 110400 Gainsville FL 32611 USA, Florida Sea Grant College Program.

Poortenaar, C., et al. (2001). “Seahorses – more horse than fish?” Aquaculture update 29(winter 2001).

Sadovy, Y. (2001). “The threat of fishing to highly fecund fishes.” Journal of Fish Biology 59(sa): 90-108.

Sanz, J. G. and M. A. Arevalo (2001). Real Life dragons in australian waters. tropical fish hobbyist. 49: 48-57.

Schnute, J. T. and L. J. Richards (2001). “use and abuse fishery models.” Can.J.Fish.Aquat.Sci. 58: 10-17.

Silveira, R. B. (2001). Alguns aspectos da reproducao e do desenvolvimentos de cavalos marinhos. Embriologia. S. M. L. d. Garcia and C. G. Fernandez. Porto Alegre, Brasil, Artmed Editora Ltda.: 212-222.

Stobutzki, I. C., et al. (2001). “Bycatch diversity and variation in a tropical Australian panaeid fishery; the implications for monitoring.” Fisheries Research 53: 283-301.

Takata, Y. and K. Sasaki (2001). “A Japanese pipefish, Halicampus punctatus (Kamohara): rediscription and biological notes (Syngnathidae, Gasterosteiformes).” Ichthyological Research 48: 315-318.

Tan, A. J. (2001). Species composition and abundance of seahorses in selected sites in northern Samar. College of Science, University of Eastern Philippines: 43.

Teixeira, R. L. and J. A. Musick (2001). “Reproduction and food habits of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia.” Brazilian Journal of Biology 61(1): 79-90.

Thusius, K. J., et al. (2001). “Extrapair paternity is influenced by breeding synchrony and density in the common yellowthroat.” Behavioral Ecology 12(5): 633-639.

Trommelen, M. A. (2001). The density and distribution of seahorses in the surrounding waters of Bonaire, N.A., Kralendijk (abstract only).

Vincent, T. (2001). “Ichtyofaune des basins du port du havre (Normandie, France).” Bull. trim. Soc. geol. Normandie et Amis Museum du Havre 87(1): 59-84.

Vincent, T. (2001). “L’Hippocampe brevirostre (Hippocampus hippocampus) et L’Hippocampe mouchete (Hippocampus ramulosus) le long des cotes Normandie.” Bull. trim. Soc. geol. Normandie et amis museum du Havre. 87(1): 47-52.

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