Literature

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2017

Aylesworth, L., Loh, T. L., Rongrongmuang, W., & Vincent, A. C. J. 2017. Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) as a case study for locating cryptic and data‐poor marine fishes for conservation. Animal Conservation. DOI: 10.1111/acv.12332

Lawson, J.M. 2017. The global search for seahorses in bycatch. Fisheries 42(1):34-39 (photo diary)

Lawson, J.M., Foster, S.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2017. Low bycatch rates add up to big numbers for a genus of small fishes. Fisheries 42(1):19-33.

Vincent, A.C.J. and S.J. Foster. 2017. Setting precedent in export regulations for marine fishes with seahorsesFisheries 42(1):40-43 (guest column)

2016

Aylesworth, L.A., Lawson, J.M., Laksanawimol, P., Ferber, P., and Loh, T.L. 2016. New records of the Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei in Southeast Asia lead to updates in range, habitat and threats. Journal of Fish Biology 88: 1620-1630.

Lam, J.T.L., H.J. Koldewey, M. Yasué and A.C.J. Vincent. 2016. Comparing interview and trade data in assessing changes in the seahorse Hippocampus spp, trade following CITES listing. Oryx 50(1): 36-46.

Lourie, S.L., Pollom, R.A. and Foster, S.J. 2016. A global revision of the seahorses Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 (Actinopterygii: Syngnathiformes): Taxonomy and biogeography with recommendations for further research. Zootaxa 4146 (1): 001–066.

Foster, S., Wiswedel, S., and A.C.J. Vincent. 2016. Opportunities and challenges for analysis of wildlife trade using CITES data – seahorses as a case study. Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 26(1): 154–172.

2015

Boehm JT, Waldman J, Robinson JD, and Hickerson MJ. 2015. Population genomics reveals seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) of the western mid-Atlantic coast to be residents rather than vagrants. PLoS ONE 10(1):e0116219.

Cisneros-Montemayor, A.M, K. West, I.S. Boiro and A.C.J. Vincent. 2015. An assessment of West African seahorses in fisheries catch and trade. Journal of Fish Biology 88(2), 751-759.

Correia, M., Caldwell, I. R., Koldewey, H. J., Andrade, J. P. and Palma, J. 2015. Seahorse (Hippocampinae) population fluctuations in the Ria Formosa Lagoon, south Portugal. Journal Fish Biology 87: 679–690. doi:10.1111/jfb.12748

Goncalves IB, Mobley KB, Ahnesjo I, Sagebakken G, Jones AG, and Kvarnemo C. 2015. Effects of mating order and male size on embryo survival in a pipefish. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society-Early Online:7 pp.

Lawson, J.M., Foster, S.J., Lim, A.C.O., Chong, V.C. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2015. Novel life-history data for threatened seahorses provide insight into fishery effects. Journal of Fish Biology 86(1): 1-15.

Lopez A, Vera M, Planas M, and Bouza C. 2015. Conservation genetics of threatened Hippocampus guttulatus in vulnerable habitats in NW Spain: Temporal and spatial Stability of wild populations with flexible polygamous mating system in captivity. PLoS ONE 10(2):e0117538.

Stiller J, Wilson NG, and Rouse GW. 2015. A spectacular new species of seadragon (Syngnathidae). Royal Society Open Science 2:140458.

Yasué M., Nellas A., Panes H. and A.C.J. Vincent 2015. Monitoring landed seahorse catch in a changing policy environment. Endangered Species Research 27:95-111.

Vincent, A.C.J., Y.J. Sadovy, S.L Fowler and S. Lieberman. 2013. The role of CITES in the conservation of marine fishes subject to international trade. Fish and Fisheries 15: 563–592. doi: 10.1111/faf.12035

2014

Basusta A, Ozer E, Girgin H, Serdar O, and Basusta N. 2014. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Hippocampus hippocampus and Hippocampus guttulatus inhabiting eastern Black Sea. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 46:447-450.

Biagi F, Piras F, Farina V, Zedda M, Mura E, Floris A, Franzoi P, Fausto AM, Taddei AR, and Carcupino M. 2014. Testis structure, spermatogenesis and sperm morphology in pipefishes of the genus Syngnathus. Acta Zoologica-Early online.

Blanco A, Chamorro A, and Planas M. 2014. Implications of physical key factors in the early rearing of the long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Aquaculture 433:214-222.

Black CA, Scott RJ, and Bernards MA. 2014. Seasonal changes in carotenoid and lipid storage by threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Environmental Biology of Fishes 97(2):209-214.

Buen-Ursua SMA, Azuma T, Arai K, and Coloso RM. 2014. Improved reproductive performance of tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes, by mysid shrimp fed singly or in combination with other natural food. Aquaculture International 23(1):29-43.

Cartagena AB. 2014. Rearing of the seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus: Key factors involved in growth and survival. Research thesis, Universitat de les Illes Balears:292pp.

Chaturvedi A, Raeymaekers JA, and Volckaert FA. 2014. Computational identification of miRNAs, their targets and functions in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Molecular Ecology Resources 14(4):768-777.

CITES. 2014. CITES Wiki Identificaiton Manual.

CITES. 2014. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. 

CITES. 2014. How CITES Works.

Correia M, Palma J, and Andrade JP. 2014. Growth performance of the early life stages of broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle (L.) fed different live or frozen diets. Aquaculture Research-Early Online.

Correia M, Palma J, Koldewey H, and Andrade JP.  2014. The use of a non-invasive tool for capture-recapture studies on a seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus population. Journal of Fish Biology 84(4):872-884

Corse E, Valladares S, Planas M, Chamorro A, and Pintado J. 2014. Analysis of the diet of the long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus by 18SrDNA amplification of prey in faeces. Aquaculture Nutrition-Early Online.

Cunha M, Berglund A, and Monteiro NM. 2014. The intrinsically dynamic nature of mating patterns and sexual selection. Environmental Biology of Fish-Early online.

Declercq AM, Chiers K, Van den Broeck W, Rekecki A, Teerlinck S, Adriaens D, Haesebrouck F, and Decostere A. 2014. White necrotic tail tips in estuary seahorses, Hippocampus kuda, Bleeker. Journal of Fish Diseases 37:501-504.

Flanagan SP, Johnson JB, Rose E, and Jones AG. 2014. Sexual selection on female ornaments in the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli). Journal of Evolutionary Biology-Early online.

Foster S and Arreguin-Sanchez F. 2014. Using distribution patterns of small fishes to assess small fish by-catch in tropical shrimp trawl fisheries. Animal Conservation 17(3):217-224.

Franz-Odendaal TA and Adriaens D. 2014. Comparative developmental osteology of the seahorse skeleton reveals heterochrony amongst Hippocampus sp. and progressive caudal fin loss. EvoDevo 5(1):1pp.

Foster SJ, Wiswedel S., and Vincent ACJ. 2014. Opportunities and challenges for analysis of wildlife trade using CITES data – seahorses as a case study. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. DOI:10.1002/aqc.2493

Gonzalez R, Dinghi P, Corio C, Medina A, Maggioni M, Storero L, and Gosztonyi A. 2014. Reply to Luzzatto et al. (2014): “Comment on ‘Genetic evidence and new morphometric data as essential tools to identify Patagonian seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus (Pisces, Syngnathidae), Gonzalez et al. (2014)'”. Journal of fish biology in Press: 3.

Gonzalez R, Dinghi P, Corio C, Medina A, Maggioni M, Storero L, and Gosztonyi A. 2014. Genetic evidence and new morphometric data as essential tools to identify the Patagonian seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus (Pisces, Syngnathidae). Journal of Fish Biology 84(2):459-474.

Gristina M, Cardone F, Carlucci R, Castellano L, Passarelli S, and Corriero G. 2014. Abundance, distribution and habitat preference of Hippocampus guttulatus and Hippocampus hippocampus in a semi-enclosed central Mediterranean marine area. Marine Ecology-Early View.

Harasti D, Martin-Smith K, and Gladstone W. 2014. Does a no-take marine protected area benefit seahorses? PLoS ONE 9: e105462.

Harasti D, Martin-Smith K, and Gladstone W. 2014. Ontogenetic and sex-based differences in habtiat preferences and site fidelity of White’s seahorse Hippocampus whitei. Journal of Fish Biology 85(5):1413-28.

Harasti D. 2014. The biology, ecology and conservation of White’s Seahorse Hippocampus whitei. Masters thesis submitted to the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia:223pp.

Haris K, Chakraborty B, Menezes A, Sreepada RA, and Fernandes WA. 2014. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to characterize phase couplings in seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) feeding clicks. The Journal of The Acoustical Society of America 136:1972-1981.

Henrich T, Hafer N, and Mobley KB. 2014. Effects of VIE tagging and partial tissue sampling on the immune response of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Journal of Fish Biology 85:955-971.

Higuchi M, Sakai H, and Goto A. 2014. A new threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus nipponicus sp. nov. (Teleostei: Gasterosteidae), from the Japan Sea region. Ichthyological Research 61:341-351.

Jamniczky HA, Harper EE, Garner R, Cresko WA, Wainwright PC, Hallgrímsson B, and Kimmel CB. 2014. Association between integration structure and functional evolution in the opercular four-bar apparatus of the threespine stickleback,Gasterostues aculeatus (Pisces: Gasterosteidae).Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 111(2):375-390.

Kasapoglu N and Duzgunes E. 2014. Some population characteristics of long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier, 1829) (Actinopterygii: Syngnathidae) in the southeastern Black Sea. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 66:127-131.

Lam JTL, Koldewey HJ, Yasue M, and Vincent ACJ. 2014. Comparing interview and trade data in assessing changes in the seahorse Hippocampus spp. trade following CITES listing. Oryx-Early Online:11pp.

Landis S. 2014. Coping with a changing ocean: Responses to global warming in host-parasite interactions between the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) and its parasites. Doctoral thesis submitted to the Universität zu Kiel: 114pp.

Larson S, Ramsey C, Tinnemore D, and Amemiya C. 2014. Novel microsatellite loci variation and population genetics within leafy seadragons, Phycodurus eques. Diversity 6(1):33-42.

Lawson JM. 2014. Rare seahorses have big implications for small fishes in bycatch. Research thesis submitted to the University of British Columbia:123pp.

Lawson, J.M., S.J. Foster, A.C.O. Lim, V.C. Chong and A.C.J. Vincent. 2014. Novel life history data for threatened seahorses provides insight into fishing effects. Journal of Fish Biology. DOI: 10.1111/jfb.12527

LePage V, Young J, Dutton CJ, Crawshaw G, Pare JA, Kummrow M, McLelland DJ, Huber P, Young K, Russell S, Al-Hussinee L, and Lumsden JS. 2014. Diseases of captive yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda Bleeker, pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson and weedy seadragon Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepede). Journal of Fish Diseases-Early View.

Luzzatto DC, Estalles ML, and Astarloa JM. 2014. Comment on ‘Genetic evidence and new morphometric data as essential tools to identify the Patagonian seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus (Pisces, Syngnathidae) by Gonzalez et al. (2014)’. Journal of Fish Biology 85(5):1297-1299.

Lawson, J.M., S.J. Foster, A.C.O. Lim, V.C. Chong and A.C.J. Vincent. 2014. Novel life history data for threatened seahorses provides insight into fishing effects. Journal of Fish Biology 86(1):1-15.

Martinez-Cardenas L, Valdez-Hernandez EF, Gonzalez-Diaz AA, Soria-Barreto M, Castaneda-Chavez MR, Lango-Reynoso F, Ruiz-Velazco JM, and Pena-Messina E. 2014. Effect of salinity on growth and survival in juvenile opossum pipefish, Microphis brachyurus, in culture conditions. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 45:577-585.

Mobley KB, Chakra M, and Jones AG. 2014. No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes. Ecology and Evolution 4(1):67-78.

Monteiro NM, Silva RM, Cunha M, Antunes A, Jones AG, and Vieira MN. 2014. Validating the use of colouration patterns for individual recognition in the worm pipefish using a novel set of microsatellite markers. Molecular Ecology Resources 14(1):150-156.

Mwale M, Kaiser H, and Heemstra PC. 2014. Reproductive biology and distribution of Syngnathus temminckii and S. watermeyeri (Pisces: Syngnathidae) in southern Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 36:175-184.

Neutens C, Adriaens D, Christiaens J, De Kegel B, Dierick M, Boistel R, and Van Hoorebeke L. 2014. Grasping convergent evolution in syngnathids: a unique tale of tails. Journal of Anatomy 224:710-723.

Noguchi T, Sakuma K, Kitahashi T, Itoh H, Kano Y, Shinohara G, Hashimoto J, and Kojima S. 2014. No genetic deviation between two morphotypes of the snipefishes (Macroramphosidae: Macroramphosus) in Japanese waters. Ichthyological Research-Early Online.

Oliveira TPR, Ladich F, Abed-Navandi D, Souto AS, and Rosa IL. 2014. Sounds produced by the longsnout seahorse: a study of their structure and functions. Journal of Zoology 293: 1-8.

Otero-Ferrer F, Izquierdo M, Fazeli A, and Holt WV. 2014. Embryonic developmental plasticity in the long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus reidi, Ginsburg 1933) in relation to parental preconception diet. Reproduction, Fertility and Development-Online Early.

Park JM and Kwak SN. 2014. Length–weight relationships and reproductive characteristics of the crowned seahorse (Hippocampus coronatus) in eelgrass beds (Zostera marina) of Dongdae Bay, Korea. Marine Biology Research 11(2):5pp.

Pichugin MY. 2014. Morphological and biological specific features of two species of nine-spined sticklebacks of the genus Pungitius (Gasterosteiformes) from water bodies of western Kamchatka. Journal of Ichthyology 54:7-22.

Pinnegar JK, Tomczak MT, and Link JS. 2014. How to determine the likely indirect food-web consequences of a newly initroduced non-native species: A worked example. Ecological Modelling 272:379-387.

Qin G, Zhang Y, Huang L, and Lin Q. 2014. Effects of water current on swimming performance, ventilation frequency, and feeding behavior of young seahorses (Hippocampus erectus). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 461:337-343.

Rose E, Small CM, Saucedo HA, Harper C, and Jones AG. 2014. Genetic Evidence for Monogamy in the Dwarf Seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae. Journal of Heredity 105(6):828-833.

Roth O, Sundin J, Berglund A, Rosenqvist G, and Wegner KM. 2014. Male mate choice relies on major histocompatibility complex class I in a sex-role-reversed pipefish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27:929-938.

Saavedra M, Masdeu M, Hale P, Sibbons CM, and Holt WV. 2014. Dietary fatty acid enrichment increases egg size and quality of yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda. Animal Reproduction Science 145:54-61.

Sanaye SV, Pise NM, Pawar AP, Parab PP, Sreepada RA, Pawar HB, and Revankar AD. 2014. Evaluation of antioxidant activities in captive-bred cultured yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852). Aquaculture 434:100-107.

Segade A, Robaina L, Otero-Ferrer F, Romero JG, and Dominguez LM. 2014. Effects of the diet on seahorse (Hippocampus hippocampus) growth, body colour and biochemical composition. Aquaculture Nutrition-Early online.

Silveira RB, Siccha-Ramirez R, Silva JRS, and Oliveira C. 2014. Morphological and molecular evidence for the occurrence of three Hippocampus species in Brazil. Zootaxa 3861:317-332.

Subburaman S, Murugan A, Goutham S, Kaul R, Jothi PVRP, and Balasubramanian T. 2014. First distributional record of the giraffe seahorse, Hippocampus camelopardalis Bianconi 1854 (Family: Syngnathidae) from Gulf of Kachchh waters, North west coast of India. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences 43(3):408-411.

Turker-Cakir D, Çoktuğ B, and Zengin K. 2014. First record of the bluespotted cornetfish, Fistularia commersonii Ruppell, 1835 (Osteichthyes: Fistulariidae) in Edremit Bay (north-eastern Aegean Sea). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 30(1):164-167.

Valladares S, Banon R, Lopez A, Bouza C, Chamorro A, Garcia ME, and Planas M. 2014. First records of the seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus in Galician waters (NW Spain). Cybium 38:74-76.

Van Wassenbergh S, Dries B, and Herrel A. 2014. New insights into muscle function during pivot feeding in seahorses. PLoS ONE 9(10):e109068.

Vieira RP, Monteiro P, Ribeiro J, Bentes L, Oliveira F, Erzini K, and Gonçalves J. 2014. Length-weight relationships of six syngnathid species from Ria Formosa, SW Iberian coast. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 55(1):9-12.

Vite-Garcia N, Arjona O, Morales-Bojorquez, Mascaro M, Simoes N, and Palacios E. 2014. Assessment of lipid classes and fatty acid levels in wild newborn seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) (Perry 1810): implications for survival and growth in aquarium culture. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 47:401-413.

Vite-Garcia N, Simoes N, Arjona O, Mascaro M, and Palacios E. 2014. Growth and survival of Hippocampus erectus (Perry, 1810) juveniles fed on Artemia with different HUFA levels. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 42:150-159.

Wang B, Zhang Y, Zhang H, and Lin Q. 2014. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Barbour’s seahorse Hippocampus barbouri Jordan and Richardson, 1908 (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae). Mitochondrial DNA-Early online 1-2.

Wang X, Zhang Y, Zhang H, Meng T, and Lin Q. 2014. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933; Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae). Mitochondrial DNA early online:2.

Whitcombe CD. 2014. Dietary and stable isotope analyses reveal the role of kelp pipefish (Syngnathus californiensis), a presumed cryptic prey, in the diet of the elegant tern (Thalasseus elegans) in southern California waters. Thesis submitted to California State University, Fullerton:66pp.

Williams SA, Janetski N, Abbott J, Blankenhorn S, Cheng B, Crafton RE, Hameed SO, Rapi S, and Trockel D. 2014. Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: Seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Environmental Management 54(6):1342-1355.

Yip MY, Lim ACO, Chong VC, Lawson JM, and Foster SJ. 2014. Food and feeding habits of the seahorses Hippocampus spinosissimus and Hippocampus trimaculatus (Malaysia). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K.-Early online:8.

Zhang Y, Pham NK, Zhang H, Lin J, and Lin Q. 2014. Genetic variations in two seahorse species (Hippocampus mohnikei and Hippocampus trimaculatus): Evidence for middle Pleistocene population expansion. PLoS ONE 9(8):e105494.

Zhanzhi J, Xu Y, and Su Y. 2014. Preparation process of active enzymolysis polypeptides from seahorse bone meal. Food Science and Nutrition 2:490-499.

2013

Anderson PA, BD P. 2013. Mixed metazoan and bacterial infection of the gas bladder of the lined seahorse – A case report. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 25(1):42-52.

Aronsen T, Mobley KB, Berglund A, Sundin J, Billing AM, and Rosenqvist G. 2013. The operational sex ratio and density influence spatial relationships between breeding pipefish. Behavioral Ecology 24(4):888-897.

Baker JA, Räsänen K, Moore J, and Hendry AP. 2013. Genetic and plastic contributions to trait divergence between parapatric habitats: female life-history traits in threespine stickleback within the Misty Lake system. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15(2):473-487.

Barber I. 2013. Sticklebacks as model hosts in ecological and evolutionary parasitology. Trends in Parasitology 29(11):556-566.

Bariche M, Kajajian A, and Azzurro E. 2013. Reproduction of the invasive bluespotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii (Teleostei, Fistulariidae) in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology Research 9(2):169-180.

Boehm JTW, Woodall L, Teske PR, Lourie SA, Baldwin C, Waldman J and Hickerson M. 2013. Marine dispersal and barriers drive Atlantic seahorse diversification. Journal of Biogeography 40(10):1839-1849.

Caldwell IR and Vincent ACJ. 2013. A sedentary fish on the move: effects of displacement on long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatis Cuvier) movement and habitat use. Environmental Biology of Fish 96(1):67-75.

Chakraborty B, Saran AK, Sinai Kuncolienker D, Sreepada RA, Haris K, and Fernandes W. 2013. Characterization of yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda feeding click sound signals in a laboratory environment: an application of probability density function and power spectral density analyses. Bioacoustics 23(1):1-14.

Chang C, Lin HY, Jang-Liaw NH, Shao KT, Lin YS, and Ho HC. 2013. The complete mitochondrial genome of the tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes (Teleostei, Syngnathidae). Mitochondrial DNA 24(3):199-201.

Chang C, Shao KT, Lin YS, and Liao YC. 2013. The complete mitochondrial genome of the three-spot seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae). Mitochondrial DNA 24(6):665-667.

Cicco ED, Paradis E, Stephen C, Turba ME, and Rossi G. 2013. Scuticociliatid ciliate outbreak in Australian pot-bellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1827): Clinical signs, histopathologic findings, and treatment with metronidazole. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 44(4):435-440.

Cone DKA, Appy R, Baggett L, King S, Gilmore S, and Abbott C. 2013. A new Gyrodactylid (Monogenea) parasitizing bay pipefish (Syngnathus leptorhynchus) from the Pacific coast of North America. Journal of Parasitology 99(2):183-188.

Correia MP,  Palma J, Koldewey H, and Andrade JP. 2013. Can artificial holdfast units work as a habitat restoration tool for long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier)? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology 448:258-264.

de Kermoysan G, Péry AR, Porcher JM, and Beaudouin R.. 2013. A non-invasive method based on head morphology to sex mature three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) in rearing conditions. Mathematical Biosciences 244(2):148-153.

Dziubinska A and Sapota M. 2013. Hydroid Gonothyraea loveni found on the straightnose pipefish (Nerophis ophidion) in the Gulf of Gdansk – symbiosis, parasitism, or biofouling? Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 42(3):332-335.

Fehr A, Walther E, Schmidt-Posthaus H, Nufer L, and Wilson A. 2013. Candidatus Syngnamydia Venezia, a novel member of the phylum Chlamydiae from the Broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle. PLoS ONE 8(8):e70853.

Gemmell BJ, Sheng J, Buskey EJ. 2013. Morphology of seahorse head hydrodynamically aids in capture of evasive prey. Nature Communications 4:1-8.

Haase D, Roth O, Kalbe M, Schmiedeskamp G, Scharsack JP, Rosenstiel P, and Reusch TB. 2013. Absence of major histocompatibility complex class II mediated immunity in pipefish, Syngnathus typhle: evidence from deep transcriptome sequencing. Biology Letters 34(8):1-6.

Harasti D and Gladstone W. 2013. Does underwater flash photography affect the behavior, movement and site persistence of seahorses? Journal of Fish Biology 83(5):1344-1353.

Hendry AP, Peichel CL, Matthews B, Boughman JW, and Nosil P. 2013. Stickleback research: the now and the next. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15(2):111-141.

Hodgson A, Black AR, and Hull R. 2013. Sensory exploitation and indicator models may explain red pelvic spines in the brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans. Evolutionay Ecology Research 15(2):199-211.

Hubner K, Gonzalez-Wanguemert M, Diekmann OE, and Serrão EA. 2013. Genetic evidence for polygynandry in the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster: A microsatellite-based parentage analysis. Journal of Heredity 104(6):791-797.

Hue NT and Tran TT. 2013. A DNA Extraction Method Applied for Living Seahorses. 4th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam 49:178-183.

Ivankov VN, Ivankova EV, Borisovets EE, and Vyshkvartsev DI. 2013. Interpopulation morphological variability of the viviparous pipefish Syngnathus acusimilis Gunther, 1873 (Teleostei: Syngnathidae). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 39(5):340-349.

Karve AD, Baker JA, and von Hippel FA. 2013. Female life-history traits of a species pair of threespine stickleback in Mud Lake, Alaska. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15(2):171-187.

Keightley MC, Wong BB, and Lieschke GJ. 2013. Immune priming: Mothering males modulate immunity. Current Biology 23(2):R76-R78.

Kiryukhina NA. 2013. Morphological variability in black-striped pipefish Syngnathus nigrolineatus in relation to its invasion into the Volga Basin reservoirs. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions 4(3):149-155.

Kitano J and Lema SC. 2013. Divergence in thyroid hormone concentrations between juveniles of marine and stream ecotypes of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Evolutionary Ecology Research 15(2):143-153.

Lenz TL, Eizaguirre C, Rotter B, Kalbe M, and Milinski M. 2013. Exploring local immunological adaptation of two stickleback ecotypes by experimental infection and transcriptome-wide digital gene expression analysis. Molecular Ecology 22(3):774-86.

Lescak EA, von Hippel FA, Bernhardt RR, and Bell MA. 2013. Pelvic girdle reduction and asymmetry in threespine stickleback from Wallace Lake, Alaska. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15:155-170.

Lewisch E, Kucera M, Tappert R, Tessadri R, Tappert M, and Kanz F. 2013. Occurrence of nephrolithiasis in a population of longsnout seahorse, Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, and analysis of a nephrolith. Journal of Fish Diseases 36(2):163-167.

Martinez-Cardenas L, Sumaya-Martinez MT, Valdez-Hernandez EF, Gonzalez-Diaz AA, Soria-Barreto M,  Castañeda-Chavez MR, Ruiz-Velazco JM, and Peña-Messina E. 2013. Effect of temperature on growth and survival in juvenile oppossum pipefish, Microphis brachyurus: First observations on the species in culture conditions. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 44(5):735-742.

Mobley KB, Ruiz RC, Johansson F, and Englund G. 2013. No evidence that stickleback spines directly increase risk of predation by an invertebrate predator. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15(2):189-198.

Morgan SK and Vincent ACJ. 2013. Life-history reference points for management of an exploited tropical seahorse. Marine and Freshwater Research 64(3):185-200.

Mwale M, Kaiser H, Barker NP, Wilson AB, and Teske PR. 2013. Identification of a uniquely southern African clade of coastal pipefishes Syngnathus spp. Journal of Fish Biology 82(6):2045-2062.

Myhren, S. 2013. Mate choice in straight-nosed pipefish (Nerophis ophidion) may be affected by increasing turbidity in the Baltic Sea. Thesis submitted to the Norwegian University of Science and Technology:26 pp.

Nazarkin MV, Yabumoto Y, and Urabe A. 2013. A new Miocene three-spined stickleback (Pisces: Gasterosteidae) from central Japan. Paleontological Research 16(4):318-328.

Park JP. 2013. Spatial learning ability of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in relation to inferred ecology and ancestry. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15(2):213-239.

Palma J, Bureau DP and Andrade JP. 2013. The effect of diet on ontogenic development of the digestive tract in juvenile reared long snout seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 40(3):739-50.

Pangestuti R, Ryu BM, Himaya SWA, and Kim SK. 2013. Optimization of hydrolysis conditions, isolation, and identification of neuroprotective peptides derived from seahorse Hippocampus trimaculatus. Amino Acids 45(2):369-381.

Partridge C, Boettcher A, and Jones AG. 2013. The role of courtship behavior and size in mate preference in the sex-role reversed gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. Ethology 119(8):692-701.

Pham NK and Lin J. 2013. The effects of different feed enrichments on survivorship and growth of early juvenile longsnout seahorse. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 44(3):435-446.

Porter MM, Novitskaya E, Castro-Ceseña AB, Meyers MA, and McKittrick J. 2013. Highly deformable bones: Unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor. Acta Biomaterialia 9(6):6763-6770.

Roesti M, Moser D,  and Berner D. 2013. Recombination in the threespine stickleback genome – patterns and consequences. Molecular Ecology 22(11):3014-3027.

Rosa, I. L., et al. 2013. Seahorses in Traditional Medicines: A Global Overview. In Animals in Traditional Folk Medicine (Eds.: Alves, R. R. N. and Rosa, I. L.). Springer: Berlin Heidelberg. 207-240.

Rose E, Paczolt KA, and Jones AG. 2013. The contributions of premating and postmating selection episodes to total selection in sex-role-reversed gulf pipefish. American Naturalist 182(3):410-420.

Rose E, Paczolt KA, and Jones AG. 2013. The effects of synthetic estrogen exposure on premating and postmating episodes of selection in sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish. Evolutionary Applications 6(8):1160-1170.

Sanaye SV, Pawar HB, Murugan A, Sreepada RA, Singh T and Ansari ZA. 2013. Diseases and parasites in cultured yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852). Fish Chimes 32(11):65-67.

Sanna D, Biagi F, Alaya HB, Maltagliati F, Addis A, Romero A, De Juan J, Quignard JP, Castelli A, Franzoi P, Torricelli P, Casu M, Carcupino M, and Francalacci P. 2013. Mitochondrial DNA variability of the pipefish Syngnathus abaster. Journal of Fish Biology 82(3):856-876.

Sarria MP, Santos MM, Castro LF, Vieira NM, and Monteiro NM. 2013. Estrogenic chemical effects are independent from the degree of sex role reversal in pipefish. Journal of Hazardous Materials 263:746-753.

Small CM, Harlin-Cognato AD, and Jones AG. 2013. Functional similarity and molecular divergence of a novel reproductive transcriptome in two male-pregnant Syngnathus pipefish species. Ecology and Evolution 3(12):4092 – 4108.

Sogabe A. and Takagi M. 2013. Population genetic structure of the messmate pipefish Corythoicthys haematopterus in the northwest pacific: evidence for a cryptic species. SpringerPlus 2(2):1-12.

Song H. and Mabuchi K. 2013. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the thorny seahorse Hippocampus histrix (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae). Mitochondrial DNA 25(1):7-8.

Souza-Santosa LP, Regisa CG, Mélob RCS, and Cavallib RO. 2013. Prey selection of juvenile seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Aquaculture 404-405:35-40.

Sparkes TC, Rush V, Kopp DA, and Foster SA. 2013. Reproductive success in a natural population of male three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus: effects of nuptial colour, parasites and body size. Journal of Fish Biology 82(5):1720-1727.

Sundin J. 2013. Sex in murky waters: Anthropogenic disturbance of sexual selection in pipefish. Ph.D. thesis submitted to the University of Uppsala:35 pp.

Sundin JRosenqvist G, and Berglund A. 2013. Altered oceanic pH impairs mating propensity in a pipefish. Ethology 119(1):86-93.

Sundin J, Sagebakken G, and Kvarnemo C. 2013. Female mate choice is not affected by mate condition in a fish with male care. Acta Ethologica 16(3):189-194.

Thuong TD and Hoang T. 2013. Rearing the spotted seahorse Hippocampus kuda by feeding live and frozen copepods collected from shrimp ponds. Aquaculture Research-Early View:1-7.

Van Wassenbergh S, Leysen H, Adriaens D, and Aerts P. 2013. Mechanics of snout expansion in suction-feeding seahorses: musculoskeletal force transmission. The Journal of Experimental Biology 216(3):407-417.

Whittington CM, Musolf K, Sommer S, and Wilson AB. 2013. Behavioral cues of reproductive status in seahorses Hippocampus abdominalis. Journal of Fish Biology 83(1):220-226.

2012

Luzzatto DC, Sieira R, Pujol MG, and Diaz De Astarloa JM. 2012. The presence of the seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus in the Argentine Sea based on the cytochrome b sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Cybium 36(2):329-333.

Able KW,Wuenschel MJ, Grothues TM, Vasslides JM, and Rowe PM. 2012. Do surf zones in New Jersey provide “nursery” habitat for southern fishes? Environmental Biology of Fish 96(5):661-675

Adriaens D, Neuten C, Christiaens J, Van Loo D, De Kegel B, Boistel R, and Van Hoorebeke L. 2012. Evolutionary morphology of the caudal musculoskeletal system in syngnathid fish: from swimming to prehension … in different ways. Integrative and Comparative Biology 52:E2-E2.

Aguirre WE and MA Bell. 2012. Twenty years of body shape evolution in a threespine stickleback population adapting to a lake environment. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 105(4):817-831.

Faircloth BC, Sorenson L, Santini F, and Alfaro ME . 2012. A phylogenomic perspective on the radiation of ray-finned fishes based upon targeted sequencing of ultraconserved elements. PLoS ONE 8(6):e65923.

Alos J, Cabanellas-Reboredo M, and Lowerre-Barbieri S. 2012. Diel behaviour and habitat utilisation by the pearly razorfish during the spawning season. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 460:207-220.

Allen BJ, Whitcraft C, and Lowe CG. 2012. Huntington Beach Wetlands Restoration (CA) Final Report. Report submitted to the NOAA Restoration Center Community-Based Restoration Program (CRP): 80 pp.

Alves RRN, Rosa IL, Leo Neto NA, and Voeks R. 2012. Animals for the Gods: Magical and Religious Faunal Use and Trade in Brazil. Human Ecology 40(5):751-780.

Anderson PA. 2012. Sexual Dimorphism in Morphometry and Allometry of the Adult Lined Seahorse, Hippocampus erectus. Copeia 2012 (3):389-393.

Araguas RM, Vidal O, Pla C, and Sanz N. 2012. High genetic diversity of the endangered Iberian three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) at the Mediterranean edge of its range. Freshwater Biology 57(1):143-154.

Ardekani R, Greenwood AK, Peichel CL, and Tavar S. 2012. Using non-local background modeling to quantify the schooling behaviour of sticklebacks. Paper submitted to the University of Southern California:4 pp.

Avise JC and Le Comber S. 2012. Clones, hermaphrodites and pregnancies: nature’s oddities offer evolutionary lessons on reproduction. Journal of Zoology 286(1):1-14.

Baden S, Emanuelsson A, Pihl L, Svensson CJ, and Åberg P. 2012. Shift in seagrass food web structure over decades is linked to overfishing. Marine Ecology Progress Series 451:61-73.

Bahr A, Sommer S, Mattle B, and Wilson AB. 2012. Mutual mate choice in the potbellied seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis). Behavioral Ecology 23(4):869-878.

Bahr A and Wilson AB. 2012. The evolution of MHC diversity: Evidence of intralocus gene conversion and recombination in a single-locus system. Gene 497(1):52-57.

Balcázar JL, Planas M, and Pintado J. 2012. Oceanibacterium hippocampi gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from cutaneous mucus of wild seahorses (Hippocampus guttulatus). Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 102(1):187-191.

Bannikov AF and Carnevale G. 2012. A long-bodied centriscoid fish from the basal Eocene of Kabardino-Balkaria, northern Caucasus, Russia. Die Naturwissenschaften 99(5):379-389.

Bariche M and Kajajian A. 2012. Population structure of the bluespotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii (Osteichthyes: Fistulariidae) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Biological Research 17:74-80.

Becker A, Coppinger C, and Whitfield AK. 2012. Influence of tides on assemblages and behaviour of fishes associated with shallow seagrass edges and bare sand. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 456:187-199.

Benesh DP and Hafer N. 2012. Growth and ontogeny of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first host affects performance in its stickleback second intermediate host. Parasites & Vectors 5:10pp.

Bernardi G, Wiley EO, Mansour H, Miller MR, Orti G, Haussler D, O’Brien SJ, Ryder OA, and Venkatesh B. 2012. The fishes of Genome 10K. Mar Genomics 7:3-6.

Bernazzani P, Bradley BA, and Opperman JJ. 2012. Integrating climate change into habitat conservation plans under the U.S. endangered species act. Environmental Management 49:1103-1114.

Best RJ and Stachowicz JJ. 2012. Trophic cascades in seagrass meadows depend on mesograzer variation in feeding rates, predation susceptibility, and abundance. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 456:29-42.

Birrer SC, Reusch TB, and Roth O. 2012. Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence. Fish Shellfish Immunology 33(6):1238-1248.

Blanco A, Quintas P, and Planas M. 2012. First observations of conjoined twins in newborn seahorses, Hippocampus guttulatus. Journal of Fish Diseases 35(9):705-708.

Bolnick DI and Kirkpatrick M. 2012. The relationship between intraspecific assortative mating and reproductive isolation between divergent populations. Current Zoology 58(3):484-492.

Bruneaux M, Johnston SE, Herczeg G, Merilä J, Primmer CR, Vasemägi A. 2012. Molecular evolutionary and population genomic analysis of the nine‐spined stickleback using a modified restriction‐site‐associated DNA tag approach. Molecular Ecology 22(3):565-582.

Burkhead N. 2012. Extinction Rates in North American Freshwater Fishes, 1900–2010. Bioscience 62(9):798-808.

Caille GM. 2012. Leptonotus blainvilleanus Open Journal of Ecology 02(02):58-59.

Caldwell IR and Vincent ACJ. 2012. Revisiting two sympatric European seahorse species: apparent decline in the absence of exploitation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 22(4):427-435.

Camisa M and Wilbur A. 2012. Buzzards Bay Disposal Site Fisheries Trawl Survey Report. Report submitted to the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries Technical Report Series:61pp.

Celino FT, Hilomen-Garcia GV, and del Norte-Campos GC. 2012. Feeding selectivity of the seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker), juveniles under laboratory conditions. Aquaculture Research 43(12):1804-1815.

Choi YU, Rho S, Park HS, and Kang DH. 2012. Population characteristics of two seahorses, Hippocampus coronatus and Hippocampus mohnikei, around seagrass beds in the southern coastal waters of Korea. Ichthyological Research 59:235-241.

Cook AB, Sutton TT, Galbraith JK, and Vecchionec M. 2012. Deep-pelagic (0–3000m) Fish Assemblage Structure over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the area of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 98:279-291.

Costa MF and Camara MR. 2012. Diversity, abundance and seasonal variation of the ichthyofauna associated with shrimp farming in a tropical estuary in northeastern Brazil. Marine Biodiversity 42(4):471-479.

Dalziel AC, Ou M and Schulte PM. 2012. Mechanisms underlying parallel reductions in aerobic capacity in non-migratory threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Journal of Experimental Biology 215(5):746-759.

Dalziel AC, Vines TH, and Schulte PM. 2012. Reductions in prolonged swimming capacity following freshwater colonization in multiple threespine stickleback populations. Evolution 66(4):1226-1239.

Dawson MN. 2012. Parallel phylogeographic structure in ecologically similar sympatric sister taxa. Molecular Ecology 21:987-1004.

Deagle BE, Jones FC, Chan YF, Absher DM, Kingsley DM, and Reimchen TE. 2012. Population genomics of parallel phenotypic evolution in stickleback across stream-lake ecological transitions. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 279(1732):1277-1286.

DeFaveri J, Shikano T, Ghani NIA, and Merilä J. 2012. Contrasting population structures in two sympatric fishes in the Baltic Sea basin. Marine Biology 159(8):1659-1672.

DeFaveri J, Zanella LN, Zanella D, Mrakovčić M, and Merilä J. 2012. Phylogeography of isolated freshwater three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations in the Adriatic Sea basin. Journal of Fish Biology 80(1):61-85.

Dingemanse NJ, Barber I, Wright J, and Brommer JE. 2012. Quantitative genetics of behavioural reaction norms: genetic correlations between personality and behavioural plasticity vary across stickleback populations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25(3):485-496.

Drake DAR and Mandrak NE. 2012. Harvest models and stock co-occurrence: probabilistic methods for estimating bycatch. Fish and Fisheries 15(1):23-42.

Eizaguirre C, Lenz TL, Kalbe M, and Milinski M. 2012. Divergent selection on locally adapted major histocompatibility complex immune genes experimentally proven in the field. Ecology Letters 15(7):723-731.

Ermakhanov ZK, Plotnikov IS, Aladin NV, and Micklin P. 2012. Changes in the Aral Sea ichthyofauna and fishery during the period of ecological crisis. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management 17(1):3-9.

Faleiro F and Narciso L. 2012. Prey–predator dynamics in seahorses (Hippocampus guttulatus): deciphering fatty acid clues. Aquaculture Research 44(4):618-633.

Filiz, H. and E. Taskavak. 2012. Field surveys on recent situation of seahorses in Turkey. Biharean Biologist 6(1):55-60.

Foster R, Bridge TCL, and Bongaerts P. 2012. The first record of Hippocampus denise (Syngnathidae) from Australia. Aqua international Journal of Ichthyology  18(1):55-57.

Freret-Meurer N and Oliveira VMD. 2012. Distribuição vertical do cavalo-marinho Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933 na região de Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Biotemas 25(2):59-66.

Freret-Meurer NV, Andreata JV, and Alves MAS. 2012. Activity rate of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933 (Syngnathidae). Acta Ethologica 15(2):221-227.

Frommen JG, Bakker TCM, Proscurcin L, and Mehlis M. 2012. Gravidity-Associated Shoaling Decisions in Three-Spined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Ethology 118(12):1149-1156.

Gambling SJ and Reimchen TE. 2012. Prolonged life span among endemic Gasterosteus populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 90(2):284-290.

Garcia LMB, Hilomen-Garcia GV, Celino FT, Gonzales TT, and Maliao RJ. 2012. Diet composition and feeding periodicity of the seahorse Hippocampus barbouri reared in illuminated sea cages. Aquaculture 358-359:1-5.

Georgieva S, Kostadinova A, and Skirnisson K. 2012. The life-cycle of Petasiger islandicus Kostadinova & Skirnisson, 2007 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) elucidated with the aid of molecular data. Systematic Parasitology 82(3):177-183.

Goldberg R, Mercaldo-Allen R, Rose JM, Clark P, Kuropat C, Meseck S, and Pereira J. 2012. Effects of hydraulic shellfish dredging on the ecology of a cultivated clam bed. Aquaculture Environment Interactions 3(1):11-21.

Grandcourt E. 2012. Reef Fish and Fisheries in the Gulf. Coral Reefs of the World 3:127-161.

Greenwood AK, Cech JN, and Peichel CL. 2012. Molecular and developmental contributions to divergent pigment patterns in marine and freshwater sticklebacks. Evolution & Development 14(4):351-362.

Gurkan S and Taskavak E. 2012. Sexual dimorphism of the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, from Aegean Sea (Turkey). North-Western Journal of Zoology 8(1):41-45.

Gustafsson C and Salo T. 2012. The effect of patch isolation on epifaunal colonization in two different seagrass ecosystems. Marine Biology 159(7):1497-1507.

Alaya HB, Trabelsi M, and Longshaw M. 2012. Pathogens and parasites of the black-striped pipefish (Syngnathus abaster) from the Tunis North Lake, Tunisia. Journal of Environmental and Occupational Science 1(2):99-104.

Hallett CS and Hall NG. 2012. Equivalence factors for standardizing catch data across multiple beach seine nets to account for differences in relative bias. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science: 1-9.

Harasti D, Martin-Smith K, and Gladstone W. 2012. Population dynamics and life history of a geographically restricted seahorse, Hippocampus whitei. Journal of Fish Biology 81(4):1297-1314.

Heins DC. 2012. Fecundity compensation in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus infected by the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 106(4):807-819.

Herczeg G, Gonda A, Kuparinen A, and Merilä J. 2012. Contrasting growth strategies of pond versus marine populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius): a combined effect of predation and competition? Evolutionary Ecology 26(1):109-122.

Heuschele J, Salminena T, and Candolina U. 2012. Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks. Animal Behaviour 83(6):1505–1510.

Hohenlohe PA, Bassham S, Currey M, and Cresko WA. 2012. Extensive linkage disequilibrium and parallel adaptive divergence across threespine stickleback genomes. Royal Society Philosophical Transactions Biological Sciences 367(1587):395-408.

Horinouchi M, Tongnunui P, Furumitsu K, Nakamura Y, Kanou K, Yamaguchi A, Okamoto K, and Sano M. 2012. Food habits of small fishes in seagrass habitats in Trang, southern Thailand. Fisheries Science 78(3):577-587.

Hwang DS, Song HB, and Lee JS. 2012. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Amur stickleback Pungitius sinensis (Gasterosteiformes, Gasterosteidae). Mitochondrial DNA 23(4):293-294.

Ingram T, Svanbäck R, Kraft NJ, Kratina P, Southcott L, and Schluter D. 2012. Intraguild predation drives evolutionary niche shift in threespine stickleback. Evolution 66(6):1819-1832.

Johannesen A, Dunn AM, and Morell LJ. 2012. Olfactory cue use by three-spined sticklebacks foraging in turbid water: prey detection or prey location? Animal Behaviour 84(1):151-158.

Johnston IA, Kristjánsson BK, Paxton CG, Vieira VL, Macqueen DJ, and Bell MA. 2012. Universal scaling rules predict evolutionary patterns of myogenesis in species with indeterminate growth. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 279(1736):2255-2261.

Jones FC, Manfred G. Grabherr, Yingguang Frank Chan, Pamela Russell, Evan Mauceli, Jeremy Johnson, Ross Swofford, Mono Pirun, Michael C. Zody, Simon White, Ewan Birney, Stephen Searle, Jeremy Schmutz, Jane Grimwood, Mark C. Dickson, Richard M. Myers, Craig T. Miller, Brian R. Summers, Anne K. Knecht, Shannon D. Brady, Haili Zhang, Alex A. Pollen, Timothy Howes, Chris Amemiya, Broad Institute Genome Sequencing Platform & Whole Genome Assembly Team, Eric S. Lander, Federica Di Palma, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, and David M. Kingsley. 2012. The genomic basis of adaptive evolution in threespine sticklebacks. Nature (London) 484(7392):55-61.

de Jong K, Forsgren E, Sandvik H, and Amundsen T. 2012. Measuring mating competition correctly: available evidence supports operational sex ratio theory. Behavioral Ecology 23 (6):1170-1177.

Juntunen T, Vanhatalo J, Peltonen H, and Mäntyniemi S. 2012. Bayesian spatial multispecies modelling to assess pelagic fish stocks from acoustic- and trawl-survey data. Ices Journal of Marine Science 69(1):95-104.

Katsiadaki I, Sanders MB, Henrys PA, Scott AP, Matthiessen P, and Pottinger TG. 2012. Field surveys reveal the presence of anti-androgens in an effluent-receiving river using stickleback-specific biomarkers. Aquatic Toxicology 122-123:75-85.

Keskin, C. 2012. A preliminary study on demersal fishes in the south-western Black Sea shelf (NW Turkey). Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 18(3):341-349.

Kimmel CB, Hohenlohe PA, Ullmann B, Currey M, and Cresko WA. 2012. Developmental dissociation in morphological evolution of the stickleback opercle. Evolution & Development 14(4):326-337.

Kitano J, Mori S, and Peichel CL. 2012. Reduction of sexual dimorphism in stream-resident forms of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Journal of Fish Biology 80(1):131-146.

Kitano J and Peichel CL. 2012. Turnover of sex chromosomes and speciation in fishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 94(3):549-558.

Kozak GM and Boughman JW. 2012. Plastic responses to parents and predators lead to divergent shoaling behaviour in sticklebacks. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25(4):759-769.

Kratina P, Greig HS, Thompson PL, Carvalho-Pereira TSA, and Shurin JB. 2012. Warming modifies trophic cascades and eutrophication in experimental freshwater communities. Ecology 93(6):1421-1430.

Kumaravel K, Ravichandran S, Balasubramanian T, and Sonneschein L. 2012. Seahorses – A source of traditional medicine. Natural Product Research 26(24):2330-2334.

Lacasse J and Aubin-Horth N. 2012. A test of the coupling of predator defense morphology and behavior variation in two threespine stickleback populations. Current Zoology 58(1):53-65.

Laine VN, Primmer CR, Herczeg G, Merilä J, and Shikano T. 2012. Isolation and characterization of 13 new nine-spined stickleback, Pungitius pungitius, microsatellites located nearby candidate genes for behavioural variation. Annales Zoologici Fennici 49(1-2):123-128.

Landis SH, Kalbe M, Reusch TB, and Roth O. 2012. Consistent pattern of local adaptation during an experimental heat wave in a pipefish-trematode host-parasite system. PloS One 7(1):e30658.

Landis SH, Sundin J, Rosenqvist G, and Roth O. 2012. Behavioral adjustments of a pipefish to bacterial Vibrio challenge. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 66(10):1399-1405.

LePage V. 2012. A Study of Syngnathid Diseases and Investigation of Ulcerative Dermatitis. Master’s thesis submitted to the University of Guelph: 128pp.

LePage V, Dutton CJ, Kummrow M, McLelland DJ, Young K, and Lumsden JS. 2012. Neoplasia of Captive Yellow Sea Horses (Hippocampus kuda) and Weedy Sea Dragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 43:50-58.

Lin Q, Li G, Qin G, Lin J, Huang L, Sun H, and Feng P. 2012. The dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810. Biology Open 1:391-396.

Liousia V, Batziakas S, Panagiotou N, Daouti I, Koutrakis E, and Leonardos ID. 2012. Length–Weight Relations of 22 Fish Species from the Littoral Zone of the Eastern Ionian Sea, Greece. Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria 42(1):69-72.

Loehr J, Leinonen T, Herczeg G, O’Hara RB, and Merilä J. 2012. Heritability of Asymmetry and Lateral Plate Number in the Threespine Stickleback. Plos One 7(7):e39843.

López A, Pardo BG, Planas M, Quintas P, Martinez P, and Bouza C. 2012. A microsatellite panel for mating system analysis and broodstock management of captive long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Aquaculture 356-357:153-157.

Lu JG, Peatman E, Tang H, Lewis J, and Liu Z. 2012. Profiling of gene duplication patterns of sequenced teleost genomes: evidence for rapid lineage-specific genome expansion mediated by recent tandem duplications. BMC Genomics 13:246.

Lucek K, Haesler MP, and Sivasundar A. 2012. When phenotypes do not match genotypes-Unexpected phenotypic diversity and potential environmental constraints in Icelandic stickleback. Journal of Heredity 103(4):579-584.

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Mai ACG and Velasco G. 2012. Population dynamics and reproduction of wild longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 92(2):421-427.

Martinez-Cardenas L and Purser JG. 2012. Substrate-attachment Preferences of Cultured Newborn Pot-bellied Seahorses, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1827). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 43:286-290.

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McCairns RJS and Bernatchez L. 2012. Plasticity and heritability of morphological variation within and between parapatric stickleback demes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25(6):1097-1112.

McClenachan L, Cooper AB, Carpenter KE, and Dulvy NK. 2012. Extinction risk and bottlenecks in the conservation of charismatic marine species. Conservation Letters 5:73-80.

McGhee KE, Pintor LM, Suhr EL, and Bell AM. 2012. Maternal exposure to predation risk decreases offspring antipredator behaviour and survival in threespined stickleback. Functional Ecology 26(4):932-940.

McKinnon JS, Hamele N, Frey N, Chou J, McAleavey L, Greene J, and Paulson W. 2012. Male Choice in the Stream-Anadromous Stickleback Complex. Plos One 7(6):e37951.

Mehlis M, Frommen JG, Rahn AK, and Bakker TCM. 2012. Inbreeding in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.): effects on testis and sperm traits. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 107(3):510-520.

Melanson RL and Campbell CE. 2012. Near-Shore Fish Populations within St. Pauls Inlet, an Estuarine System in Western Newfoundland. Northeastern Naturalist 19(3):487-500.

Miersch L. 2012. Life History Patterns of Syngnathus typhle: An experimental approach. Diploma thesis submitted to the Christian-Albrecht-Universität Kiel:64pp.

Mobley KB and Jones AG. 2012. Overcoming Statistical Bias to Estimate Genetic Mating Systems in Open Populations: A Comparison of Bateman’s Principles between the Sexes in a Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish. Evolution 67(3):646-660.

Mol JH. 2012. Occurrence of a freshwater pipefish Pseudophallus cf. brasiliensis (Syngnathidae) in Corantijn River, Suriname, with notes on its distribution, habitat, and reproduction. International Journal of Ichthyology 36(1):45-53.

Morrell LJ, Hentley WT, Wickens VJ,Wickens JB, and Rodgers GM. 2012. Artificial enhancement of an extended phenotype signal increases investment in courtship by three-spined sticklebacks. Animal Behaviour 84(1):93-101.

Natsopoulou ME, Pálsson S, and Ólafsdóttir GÁ. 2012. Parasites and parallel divergence of the number of individual MHC alleles between sympatric three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatusmorphs in Iceland. Journal of Fish Biology 81(5):1696-1714.

Neal JW, Adelsberger CM, and Lochmann SE. 2012. A Comparison of Larval Fish Sampling Methods for Tropical Streams. Marine and Coastal Fisheries 4(1):23-29.

Nickel J and Cursons R. 2012. Genetic diversity and population structure of the pot-belly seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 46(2):1-12.

Flamarique IN, Cheng CL, Bergstrom C, and Reimchen TE. 2012. Pronounced heritable variation and limited phenotypic plasticity in visual pigments and opsin expression of threespine stickleback photoreceptors. The Journal of Experimental Biology 216:656-667.

O’Brien CS, Bourdo R, Bradshaw WE, Holzapfel CM, and Cresko WA. 2012. Conservation of the photoperiodic neuroendocrine axis among vertebrates: Evidence from the teleost fish, Gasterosteus aculeatus. General and Comparative Endocrinology 178(1):19-27.

Oliveira F, Monteiro P, Bentes L, Erzi K, and Gonçalves MS. 2012. Habitat preferences of the Syngnathidae in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon (South Portugal). Poster submitted to the University of Aveiro.

Ondračková M, Slováčková I, Trichkova T, Polačik M, and Jurajda P. 2012. Shoreline distribution and parasite infection of black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster Risso, 1827 in the lower River Danube. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 28(4):590-596.

Otero-Ferrer F, Molina L, Socorro J, Fernández-Palacios H, Izquierdo M, and Herrera R. 2012. Effect of Different Live Prey on Spawning Quality of Short-Snouted Seahorse, Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus, 1758). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 43:174-186.

Pais MP, Henriques S, Costa MJ, and Cabral HN. 2012. A critical approach to the use of published data for baseline characterisation of marine fish assemblages: An exercise on Portuguese coastal waters. Ocean & Coastal Management 69:173-184.

Pallavi, Goswami M, Nautiyal P, Malakar AK, and Nagpure NS. 2012. Genetic divergence and molecular phylogenetics of Puntius spp. based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Mitochondrial DNA 23(6):477-483.

Park PJ, Chase I, and Bell MA. 2012. Phenotypic plasticity of the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus telencephalon in response to experience in captivity. Current Zoology 58(1):189-210.

Parkinson KL, Booth DJ, and Lee JE. 2012. Validation of otolith daily increment formation for two temperate syngnathid fishes: the pipefishes Stigmatopora argus and Stigmatopora nigra. Journal of Fish Biology 80:698-704.

Parmar MB, Venkatachalam AB, and Wright JM. 2012. Comparative genomics and evolutionary diversification of the duplicated fabp6a and fabp6b genes in medaka and three-spined stickleback. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and Proteomics 7(4):311-321

**Phoonsawat, R., et al. 2012. Sea horse in Thai waters. Report submitted to the Bangkok,Thailand:Marine Fisheries Research and Development Bureau:

Pottinger TG, Henrys PA, Williams RJ, and Matthiessen P. 2012. The stress response of three-spined sticklebacks is modified in proportion to effluent exposure downstream of wastewater treatment works. Aquatic Toxicology 126:382-392.

Praet T and Adriaens D. 2012. Inspiration from nature: dynamic modelling of the musculoskeletal structure of the seahorse tail. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering 28(10):1028-1042.

Qin G, Lin Q, Gu N, Lin J, and Huang L. 2012. Effect of broodstock origin, background and substrate color on skin coloration of three-spotted seahorses Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach, 1814. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 416-417:129-134.

Quinn TP, Sergeant CJ, Beaudreau AH, and Beauchamp DA. 2012. Spatial and temporal patterns of vertical distribution for three planktivorous fishes in Lake Washington. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 21(3):337-348.

Rajaram R and Murugan S. 2012. Ichthyofaunal Diversity in Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve. Ecology of Faunal Communities on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands:103-116.

Richardson DT and Narguizian PJ. 2012. Incorporating Captive Animal Behavior into the Conservation of Threatened Species, Hippocampus Ingens. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology 2(7):17-23.

Rick IP, Bloemker D, and Bakker TCM. 2012. Spectral composition and visual foraging in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteidae: Gasterosteus aculeatus L.): elucidating the role of ultraviolet wavelengths. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 105(2):359-368.

Roche DP, McGhee KE, and Bell AM. 2012. Maternal predator-exposure has lifelong consequences for offspring learning in threespined sticklebacks. Biology Letters 8(6):932-935.

Roesti M, Hendry AP, Salzburger W, and Berner D. 2012. Genome divergence during evolutionary diversification as revealed in replicate lake-stream stickleback population pairs. Molecular Ecology 21(12):2852-2862.

Roth O, Keller I, Landis SH, Salzburger W, and Reusch TB. 2012. Hosts are ahead in a marine host-parasite coevolutionary arms race: innate immune system adaptation in pipefish Syngnathus typhle against Vibrio phylotypes. Evolution 66(8):2528-2539.

Ruiz-Gomez ML and Huntingford FA. 2012. Boldness and aggressiveness in early and late hatched three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Journal of Fish Biology 81(3):966-976.

Rush SA, Paterson G, Johnson TB, Haffner GD, Hebert CE, Arts MT, McGoldrick DJ, Backus SM, Lantry BF, Lantry JR, and Schaner T. 2012. Long-term impacts of invasive species on a native top predator in a large lake system. Freshwater Biology 57(11):2342-2355.

Saarinen P, Pahlberg J, Herczeg G, Viljanen M, Karjalainen M, Shikano T, Merilä J, and Donner K. 2012. Spectral tuning by selective chromophore uptake in rods and cones of eight populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). Journal of Experimental Biology 215(16):2760-2773.

Scobell SK, Mackenzie DS, Jaques JT, and Jones AG. 2012. Androgens and female intrasexual aggression in the sex-role reversed Gulf pipefish. Integrative and Comparative Biology 52:E156-E156.

**Sedberry, G. R. and P. Webster. 2012. Lined seahorse.

Semenov DY. 2012. Three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus (Gasterosteiformes, Gasterosteidae)—A new species in the fish fauna of the Kuybyshev reservoir. Journal of Ichthyology 52(8):572-574.

Shao YT. 2012. The brain-pituitary-gonadal axis of the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Doctoral dissertation submitted to Stockholm University:39pp.

Shao YT, Tseng YC, Trombley S, Hwang PP, Schmitz M, and Borg B. 2012. Schistocephalus solidus infections increase gonadotropins and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH3) mRNA levels in the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Parasitology International 61(3):470-474.

Singh K, Gopalakrishnan A, Lakra WS, and Sobti RC. 2012. Microsatellite loci to determine population structure in the yellow seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) and the three-spotted seahorse (H. trimaculatus). Marine Biodiversity 42(4):481-488.

Smith R, Grutter AS, and Tibbetts IR. 2012. Extreme habitat specialisation and population structure of two gorgonian-associated pygmy seahorses. Marine Ecology Progress Series 444:195-206.

Sogabe A, Mohri K, and Shoji J. 2012. Reproductive seasonality of the seaweed pipefish Syngnathus schlegeli (Syngnathidae) in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Ichthyological Research 59(3):223-229.

Sogabe A, Takata H, and Kobayashi Y. 2012. Ovarian structure and mode of egg production in the seaweed pipefish Syngnathus schlegeli (Syngnathidae). Ichthyological Research 60(1):85-88.

Stein LR and Bell AM. 2012. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Current Zoology 58(1):45-52.

Svanback R and Schluter D. 2012. Niche Specialization Influences Adaptive Phenotypic Plasticity in the Threespine Stickleback. American Naturalist 180(1):50-59.

Tanu, Deobagkar DD, Khandeparker R, Sreepada RA, Sanaye SV, and Pawar HB. 2012. A study on bacteria associated with the intestinal tract of farmed yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852): characterization and extracellular enzymes. Aquaculture Research 43:386-394.

Taylor EB, Gerlinsky C, Farrell N, and Gow JL. 2012. A test of hybrid growth disadvantage in wild, free-ranging species pairs of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and its implications for ecological speciation. Evolution 66(1):240-251.

Tutman P, Burić M, and Skaramuca B. 2012. First substantiated record of the Black-Striped Pipefish, Syngnathus Abaster (Actinopterygii: Syngnathiformes: Syngnathidae), in the freshwaters of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria 42(3):259-262.

Valimaki K and Herczeg G. 2012. Ontogenetic and evolutionary effects of predation and competition on nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) body size. Journal of Animal Ecology 81(4):859-867.

Valimaki K, Herczeg G, and Merilä J. 2012. Morphological anti-predator defences in the nine-spined stickleback: constitutive, induced or both? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 107(4):854-866.

Valladares, S. and Planas, M. 2012. Non-lethal dorsal fin sampling for stable isotope analysis in seahorses. Aquatic Ecology 46(3):363-370.

Van Wassenbergh S. 2012. Three-dimensional model of force transmission in the suction feeding system of seahorses. Integrative and Comparative Biology 52:E180-E180.

Verberk W, van den Munckhof PJJ, and Pollux BJA. 2012. Niche segregation in two closely related species of stickleback along a physiological axis: explaining multidecadal changes in fish distribution from iron-induced respiratory impairment. Aquatic Ecology 46(2):241-248.

Verdiell-Cubedo D, Torralva M, Ruiz-Navarroa A, and Oliva-Paterna FJ. 2012. Fish assemblages in different littoral habitat types of a hypersaline coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, Mediterranean Sea). Italian Journal of Zoology 80(1):104-116.

**Vu Ngoc Ut and T. C. Tam. 2012. Species Composition and Fish Status of Seahorse (Hippocompus spp.) in Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam. Conference presentation at Bien Dong 2012, Nha Trang.

Waltzek TB, Marty GD, Alfaro ME, Bennett WR, Garver KA, Haulena M, Weber ES 3rd, and Hedrick RP. 2012. Systemic iridovirus from threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus represents a new megalocytivirus species (family Iridoviridae). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 98(1):41-56.

Wang M, Nie Y, Peng Y, He F, Yang J, Wu C, and Li X. 2012. Purification, characterization and antitumor activities of a new protein from Syngnathus acus, an officinal marine fish. Marine Drugs 10(1):35-50.

Ward AJW, Krause J, and Sumpter DJT. 2012. Quorum decision-making in foraging fish shoals. PLoS ONE 7(3):e32411, 32411-32418.

Wark AR, Mills MG, Dang LH, Chan YF, Jones FC, Brady SD, Absher DM, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Kingsley DM, and Peichel CL. 2012. Genetic architecture of variation in the lateral line sensory system of Threespine Sticklebacks. G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics 2(9):1047-1056.

Webster MM and Laland KN. 2012. Social information, conformity and the opportunity costs paid by foraging fish. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 66(5):797-809.

Weiss LC, Kruppert S, Laforsch C, and Tollrian R. 2012. Chaoborus and Gasterosteus anti-predator responses in Daphnia pulex are mediated by independent cholinergic and gabaergic neuronal signals. PLoS ONE 7(5):e36879, 36871-36878.

West K. 2012. Investigating the West African seahorse trade. FishBytes: Newsletter of the Fisheries Centre. L. Boonzaier. University of British Columbia. 18.

West K. 2012. Investigations into the Senegalese trade in CITES-listed seahorses, Hippocampus algiricus. Master thesis submitted to Imperial College London: 78pp.

Wetherill T. 2012. A feeding study of the Longsnout Seahorse, Hippocampus reidi. Aquaculture-Online:12pp.

Willadino L, Souza-Santos LP, Mélo RCS, Brito AP, Barros NCS, Araújo-Castro CMV, Galvão DB, Gouveia A, Regis CG, and Cavalli RO. 2012. Ingestion rate, survival and growth of newly released seahorse Hippocampus reidi fed exclusively on cultured live food items. Aquaculture 360-361:10-16.

Wong BBM, Tuomainen U, and Candolin U. 2012. Algal blooms impact the quality of nest construction in three-spined sticklebacks. Animal Behaviour 84(6):1541-1545 .

Wright D. 2012. Conspicuous female ornamentation and male mate preference of Threespine Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Master thesis submitted to East Carolina University: 69pp.

Wund MA, Valena S, Wood S, and Baker JA. 2012. Ancestral plasticity and allometry in threespine stickleback reveal phenotypes associated with derived, freshwater ecotypes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 105(3):573-583.

Yasué M, Nellas A, and Vincent ACJ. 2012. Seahorses helped drive creation of marine protected areas, so what did these protected areas do for the seahorses? Environmental Conservation 39:183-193.

Yin F, Tang B, Zhang D, and Zou X. 2012. Lipid metabolic response, peroxidation, and antioxidant defence status of juvenile Lined Seahorse,Hippocampus erectus, fed with highly unsaturated fatty acids enriched Artemia nauplii. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 43(5):716-726.

Žalohar J and Hitij T. 2012. The first known fossil record of pygmy pipehorses (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampinae) from the Coprolitic Horizon; Tunjice Hills, Slovenia. Annales de Paléontologie 98(2):131-151.

2011

Ahnesjö I and Craig JF. 2011. The biology of Syngnathidae: pipefishes, seadragons and seahorses. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1597-1602.

Alaya HB, Galzin R, Quignard JP, and Trabelsi M. 2011. Spinal deformities in the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster (Pisces, Syngnathidae) from the Tunis North Lake, Tunisia. Chemosphere 82:318-320.

Anderson P, Berzins IK, Fogarty F, Hamlin HJ, and Guilette Jr. LJ. 2011. Sound, stress, and seahorses: The consequences of a noisy environment to animal health. Aquaculture 311:129-138.

Anderson P and Mann D. 2011. Evoked potential audiogram of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus (Perry), in terms of sound pressure and particle acceleration.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 91:251-259.

Avise JC and Liu JX. 2011. Multiple mating and its relationship to brood size in pregnant fishes versus pregnant mammals and other viviparous vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108:7091-7095.

Azevedo I, Ramos S, Mucha AP, and Bordalo AA. 2011. Applicability of ecological assessment tools for management decision-making: A case study from the Lima estuary (NW Portugal). Ocean and Coastal Management 72:54-63.

Bahr A and Wilson AB. 2011. The impact of sex-role reversal on the diversity of the major histocompatibility complex: insights from the seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis). BMC Evolutionary Biology 11:121.

Baum JK and Vincent ACJ. 2011. Seahorse trade in Mexico. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19:57-77.

Ben Alaya H, Sanna D, Casu M, Biagi F, Francalacci P, Carcupino M, Galzin R, Quignard JP, and Trabelsi M. 2011. Analysis of meristic and mitochondrial DNA variation in Syngnathus abaster (Teleostea: Syngnathidae) from two western Mediterranean lagoons. Biologia 66:1140-1147.

Ben Amor MM, Salem BM, Reynaud C, and Capape C. 2011. Length–weight relationships in syngnathid species from Tunisian waters (central Mediterranean). Marine Biodiversity Records 4:1-4.

Birrer S. 2011. How salinity affects the pipefish-Vibrio interaction. Department of Biology at Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich:66pp.

Bodilis P, Arceo H, and Francour P. 2011. Further evidence of the establishment of Fistularia commersonii (Osteichthyes: Fistulariidae) in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biodiversity Records 4:1-4.

Braga Goncalves I, Ahnesjö I, and Kvarnemo C. 2011. The relationship between female body size and egg size in pipefishes. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1847-1854.

Caldwell IR, Correia M, Palma J, and Vincent ACJ. 2011. Advances in tagging syngnathids, with the effects of dummy tags on behaviour of Hippocampus guttulatus. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1769-1785.

Celino FT, Hilomen-Garcia GV and del Norte-Campos AGC. 2011. Feeding selectivity of the seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker), juveniles under laboratory conditions. Aquaculture Research 43(12):1804-1815.

Coleman SW and Jones AG. 2011. Patterns of multiple paternity and maternity in fishes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103:735-760.

Coles R, Grech A, Rasheed M, Mckenzie L, Unsworth R, and Short F. 2011. Seagrass ecology and threats in the tropical Indo-Pacific bioregion. Seagrass ecology, uses and threats:225-240.

de Cunha M and de Silva B. 2011. Anesthetic induction and recovery of Hippocampus reidi exposed to the essential oil of Lippia alba. Neotropical Ichthyology 9(3):683-688.

Dänhardt A and PH Becker. 2011. Does small-scale vertical distribution of juvenile schooling fish affect prey availability to surface-feeding seabirds in the Wadden Sea? Journal of Sea Research 65:247-255.

Deidun A. 2011. On the increasing occurrence of the Bluespotted Cornetfish Fistularia commersonii (Rüppel, 1838) in the Central Mediterranean (Osteichthyes , Fistulariidae). Biodiversity Journal 2:19-26.

**Engineering, C. P. 2011. Essential Fish Habitat Assessment: Section 7 Consultation Endangered Species Act.

Evanson M, Foster SJ, Wiswedel S, and Vincent ACJ. 2011. Tracking the international trade of seahorses (Hippocampus species). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(2):102.

Faleiro F and Narciso L. 2011. Prey-predator dynamics in seahorses (Hippocampus guttulatus): deciphering fatty acid clues. Aquaculture Research 44(4):618-633.

Gemmell BJ and Buskey EJ. 2011. The transition from nauplii to copepodites: susceptibility of developing copepods to fish predators. Journal of Plankton Research 33:1773-1777.

Grech A and Coles R. 2011. Interactions between a trawl fishery and spatial closures for biodiversity conservation in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia. PLoS ONE 6(6):e21094.

Gurkan S, Sever TM, and Taskavak E. 2011. Seasonal food composition and prey-length relationship of pipefish Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus, 1758) inhabiting the Aegean Sea. Acta Adriatica 52:5-14.

Gurkan S, Taskavak E, Sever TM, and Akalin S. 2011. Gut contents of two European seahorses Hippocampus hippocampus and Hippocampus guttulatus in the Aegean Sea, coasts of Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 43(6):1197-1201.

Hablützel PI and Wilson AB. 2011. Notes on the occurrence of Syngnathus rostellatus (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in the Mediterranean. Marine Biodiversity Records 4:2007-2010.

Hansen GJA, Ban NC, Jones ML, Kaufman L, Panes HM, Yasue M, and Vincent ACJ. 2011. Hindsight in marine protected area selection: A comparison of ecological representation arising from opportunistic and systematic approaches. Biological Conservation 144:1866-1875.

Hellyer CB, Harasti D, and Poore AGB. 2011. Manipulating artificial habitats to benefit seahorses in Sydney Harbour, Australia. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21:582-589.

Hill NAO, Rowcliffe JM, Koldewey HJ, Milner-Gulland EJ. 2011. The interaction between seaweed farming as an alternative occupation and fisher numbers in the central Philippines. Conservation Biology 26(2):324-334.

Igoe J. 2011. Rereading conservation critique: a response to Redford. Oryx 45(03):333-334.

Jawad L, Al-Kharusi L, and Al-Mamry J. 2011. On the occurrence of the Egyptian seahorse Hippocampus suezensis Duncker, 1940 in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. Acta Adriatica 52:137-140.

Kiryukhina N and Kholodova MV. 2011. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis in aboriginal and invasive populations of Black Sea pipefish Syngnathus nigrolineatus Eichwald 1831. Doklady Biological Sciences : Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological sciences sections-translated from Russian 437: 88-90.

Krishnan T, Kuiter RH, and Patterson J. 2011. Occurrence of western Indian Ocean seahorse Hippocampus borboniensis Duméril , 1870 , in the Gulf of Mannars , Southeastern India. 8IJMS 40:642-644.

Kvarnemo C, Mobley KB, Partridge C, Jones AG, and Ahnesjö I. 2011. Evidence of paternal nutrient provisioning to embryos in broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1725-1737.

Lee HR and O’Brien KMB. 2011. Morphological and behavioral limit of visual resolution in temperate (Hippocampus abdominalis) and tropical (Hippocampus taeniopterus) seahorses. Visual Neuroscience 28:351-360.

Lees J, Marss T, Wilson MVH, Saat T, and Spilev H. 2011. The sculpture and morphology of postcranial dermal armor plates and associated bones in gasterosteiforms and syngnathiforms inhabiting Estonian coastal waters.  Acta Zoologica 93(4):422-435.

Lele S. 2011. Rereading the interdisciplinary mindscape: a response to Redford. Oryx 45(03):331-332.

Leysen H, Christiaens J, De Kegel B, Boone MN, Van Hoorebeke L, and Adriaens D. 2011. Musculoskeletal structure of the feeding system and implications of snout elongation in Hippocampus reidi and Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1799-1823.

Leysen H, Dumont ER, Brabant L, Hoorebeke LV, and Adriaens D. 2011. Modelling stress in the feeding apparatus of seahorses and pipefishes (Teleostei: Syngnathidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 104:680-691.

Leysen H, Roos G, and Adriaens D. 2011. Morphological variation in head shape of pipefishes and seahorses in relation to snout length and developmental growth. Journal of Morphology 272:1259-1270.

Li M, Chen M, Huang H, Tao W, Cui J, and Xiang H. 2011. Neuroprotective effects of active ingredients isolated from Pegasus laternarius on cultured cerebral neurons. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 31:73-82.

Lim ACO, Chong VC, Wong CS, and Choo CK. 2011. Diversity, habitats and conservation threats of syngnathid (Syngnathidae) fishes in Malaysia. Tropical Zoology 24(2):193-222.

Lindqvist C, Sundin J, Berglund A, and Rosenqvist G. 2011. Male broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle do not locate females by smell. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1861-1867.

Martin-Smith KM. 2011. Photo-identification of individual weedy seadragons Phyllopteryx taeniolatus and its application in estimating population dynamics. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1757-1768.

Martinez-Cardenas L and Purser JG. 2011. Effect of temperature on growth and survival in cultured early Juvenile Pot-bellied Seahorses, Hippocampus abdominalis. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 42:854-862.

Mobley KB, Kvarnemo C, Ahnesjö I, Patridge C, Berglund A, and Jones AG. 2011. The effect of maternal body size on embryo survivorship in the broods of pregnant male pipefish. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:1169-1177.

Mobley KB, Small CM, and Jones AG. 2011. The genetics and genomics of Syngnathidae: pipefishes, seahorses and seadragons. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1624-1646.

Murugan A and Dhanya S. 2011. Fishery biology, demography of three spotted seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus inhabiting Gulf of Mannar region, Southeast coast of India. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences 40(3):411-423.

Murugesan P, Purusothaman S, and Muthuvelu S. 2011. Trophic level of fishes associated in the trawl bycatch from Parangipettai and Cuddalore, Southeast Coast of India. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 7:29-38

Negreiros LAS, Silva BF, Paulino MG, Fernandes MN, and Chippari-Gomes AR. 2011. Effects of hypoxia and petroleum on the genotoxic and morphological parameters of Hippocampus reidi. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C 153(4):408-414.

Nishikawa J, Fitzpatrick R, Reimer JD, Beaman RJ, Yamamoto H, and Lindsay DJ. 2011. In situ observation of Denise’s pygmy seahorse Hippocampus denise associated with a gorgonian coral Annella reticulata at Osprey Reef, Australia. Galaxea, Journal of Coral Reef Studies 13:25-26.

Otero-Ferrer F. 2011. Seahorses in Gran Canaria Island (Spain): ecology and aquaculture-combined tools for marine conservation issues. Doctoral thesis submitted to the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria:279pp.

Palma J and Bureau D. 2011. Effect of different Artemia enrichments and feeding protocol for rearing juvenile long snout seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Aquaculture 318:439-443.

Pawar H and Sanaye S. 2011. Effect of background color of tanks on growth and survival of juvenile Yellow Seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker 1852), in the pelagic phase. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture 63:1-6.

Pawar H, Sanaye SV, Sreepada RA, Harish V, Suryavanshi U, Tanu, and Ansari ZA. 2011. Comparative efficacy of four anaesthetic agents in the yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852). Aquaculture 311:155-161.

Přikryl T, Krzemińskic W, and Kaniad I. 2011. New information about the anatomy of a peculiar fish of the genus Hipposyngnathus Daniltshenko, 1960. Comptes Rendus Palevol 10:559-566.

Redford KH 2011. Misreading the conservation landscape. Oryx 45(03):324-330.

Reijnen BT, Van Der Meij SET, and Van Ofwegen LP. 2011. Fish, fans and hydroids: host species of pygmy seahorses. ZooKeys 103:1-26.

Robinson CLK, Yakimishyn J, and Dearden P. 2011. Habitat heterogeneity in eelgrass fish assemblage diversity and turnover. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21(7):625-635.

Robinson M and Zhang X. 2011. The world medicine situation 2011 (Traditional medicine: global situation, issues, and challenges). World Health Organization, Geneva:14pp.

Roos G, Van Wassenbergh S, Aerts P, Herrel A, Adriaens D. 2011. Effects of snout dimensions on the hydrodynamics of suction feeding in juvenile and adult seahorses. Journal of Theoretical Biology 269:307-317.

Rosa  IL, Oliveira TPR, Osório FM, Moraes LE, Castro ALC, Barros GML, and Alves RRN. 2011. Fisheries and trade of seahorses in Brazil: historical perspective, current trends, and future directions. Biodiversity and Conservation 20:1951-1971.

Rosenqvist G and Berglund A. 2011. Sexual signals and mating patterns in Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1647-1661.

Roth O, Scharsack JP, Keller I, and Reusch TB. 2011. Bateman’s principle and immunity in a sex-role reversed pipefish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24:1410-1420.

Rozas LP, Minello TJ, and Dantin DD. 2011. Use of Shallow Lagoon Habitats by Nekton of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Estuaries and Coasts 35(2):572-586.

Ryu B, Himaya SW, Qian ZJ, Lee SH, and Kim SK. 2011. Prevention of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in HDF cells by peptides derived from seaweed pipefish, Syngnathus schlegeli. Peptides 32:639-647.

Sagebakken G, Ahnesjö I, Goncalves IB, and Kvarnemo C. 2011. Multiply mated males show higher embryo survival in a paternally caring fish. Behavioral Ecology 22:625-629.

Sanchez-Camara J, Martin-Smith K, Booth DJ, Fritschi J, and Turon X. 2011. Demographics and vulnerability of a unique Australian fish, the weedy seadragon Phyllopteryx taeniolatus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 422:253-264.

Saran A and Sreepada R. 2011. An experiment towards characterizing seahorse sound in a laboratory controlled environment. National Conference on Electronic Technologies:3pp.

Sárria MP, Santos MM, Reis-Henriques MA, Vieira NM, and Monteiro NM. 2011. The unpredictable effects of mixtures of androgenic and estrogenic chemicals on fish early life. Environment International 37:418-424.

Sárria MP, Santos MM, Reis-Henriques MA, Vieira NM, and Monteiro NM. 2011. Drifting towards the surface: a shift in newborn pipefish’s vertical distribution when exposed to the synthetic steroid ethinylestradiol. Chemosphere 84:618-624.

Satapoomin U. 2011. The fishes of southwestern Thailand, the Andaman Sea: A review of research and a provisional checklist of species. Phuket Marine Biological Centre Research Bulletin 70:29-77.

Schein A, Courtenay SC, Crane CS, Teather KL, and Van Den Heuvel MR. 2011. The role of submerged aquatic vegetation in structuring the nearshore fish community within an estuary of the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Estuaries and Coasts 35:799-810.

Scobell SK. 2011. The role of androgens in male pregnancy and female competitive behavior in a sex role reversed pipefish. Doctoral dissertation submitted to Texas A&M University:157pp.

Scobell SK and Mackenzie DS. 2011. Reproductive endocrinology of Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1662-1680.

Sears BF, Anderson P, and Greiner EC. 2011. A new species of myxosporean (Sphaeromyxidae), a parasite of lined seahorses, Hippocampus erectus, from the Gulf of Mexico. J Parasitol 97(4):713-716.

Sheppard JN, James NC, Whitfield AK, and Cowley PD. 2011. What role do beds of submerged macrophytes play in structuring estuarine fish assemblages? Lessons from a warm-temperate South African estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 95:145-155.

Shin S and Han J. 2011. Identification of scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi from indo-pacific seahorses Hippocampus kuda. African Journal of Microbiology Research 5(7):738-741.

Short FT, Sheppard JN, James NC, Whitfield AK, and Cowley PD. 2011. Extinction risk assessment of the world’s seagrass species. Biological Conservation 144(7):1961-1971.

Singh K and Lakra W. 2011. Molecular identification and phylogenetic relationship of seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker 1852) using mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI gene sequences from. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 81(1):97-101

Smith TM, Hindell JS, Jenkins GP, Connolly RM, and Keough MJ. 2011. Edge effects in patchy seagrass landscapes: The role of predation in determining fish distribution. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 399:8-16.

Smith TM, Hindell JS, Jenkins GP, Connolly RM, and Keough MJ. 2011. Fine-scale spatial and temporal variations in diets of the pipefish Stigmatopora nigra within seagrass patches. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1824-1832.

Sogabe A and Ahnesjö I. 2011. The ovarian structure and mode of egg production in two polygamous pipefishes: a link to mating pattern. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1833-1846.

Sogabe A, Kawanishi R, Takata H, and Kobayashi Y. 2011. Basic reproductive biology of the barbed pipefish Urocampus nanus (Syngnathidae) under laboratory conditions. Ichthyological Research 59:77-82.

Sumith JA, Munkittrick KR, and Athukorale N. 2011. Fish assemblage structure of two contrasting stream catchments of the Mahaweli River basin in Sri Lanka: Hallmarks of human exploitation and implications for conservation. The Open Conservation Biology Journal 5:25-44.

Sundin J, Jacobsson O, Berglund A, and Rosenqvist G. 2011. Straight-nosed pipefish Nerophis ophidion and broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle avoid eelgrass overgrown with filamentous algae. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1855-1860.

Szabó Z, Kimokeo BK, Toonen RJ, and Randall JE. 2011. On the status of the Hawaiian seahorses Hippocampus hilonis , H. histrix and H. fisheri (Syngnathidae). Marine Biology Research 7:701-709.

Thangaraj M and Lipton A. 2011. Assessment of genetic variation in closely related seahorse species(Genus: Hippocampus) using mtDNA marker. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 10:140-142.

Van Bibber N. 2011. Population Genetics of Gulf Pipefish, Syngnathus Scovelli, Along the Southeast Coast of Florida. Thesis submitted to Eckerd College: 40pp.

Van Wassenbergh S, Roos G, Aerts P, Herrel A, and Adriaens D. 2011. Why the long face? A comparative study of feeding kinematics of two pipefishes with different snout lengths. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1786-1798.

Van Wassenbergh S, Roos G, and Ferry L. 2011. An adaptive explanation for the horse-like shape of seahorses. Nature communications 2(164):5pp.

Vincent ACJ. 2011. Saving the shallows: focusing marine conservation where people might care. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21(6):495-499.

Vincent ACJ, Foster SJ, and Koldewey HJ. 2011. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1681-1724.

Vincent ACJ, Giles BG, Czembor C, and Foster SJ. 2011. Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19:181pp.

Wang M, He Y, Nie Y, and Li X. 2011. Chemical constituents from the antitumor fraction of Trachyrhamphus serratus. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 47:465-466.

Wijesekara I, Qian Z, Ryu B, Ngo D, Kim S. 2011. Purification and identification of antihypertensive peptides from seaweed pipefish (Syngnathus schlegeli) muscle protein hydrolysate. Food Research International 44:703-707.

Wilson B and Orr JW. 2011. The evolutionary origins of Syngnathidae: pipefishes and seahorses. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1603-1623.

Winkler JD, Stölting KN, and Wilson AB. 2011. Sex-specific responses to fecundity selection in the broad-nosed pipefish. Evolutionary Ecology 26(3):701-714.

Woodall LC, Koldewey HJ, and Shaw PW. 2011. Serial monogamy in the European long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Conservation Genetics 12:1645-1649.

Woodall LC, Koldewey HJ, and Shaw PW.2011. Historical and contemporary population genetic connectivity of the European short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus and implications for management. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1738-1756.

Yasemi M. 2011. On the record of the red cornet fish Fistularia petimba (Syngnathiformes, Fistularidea) in Jask port, the Oman sea. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 11(1):226-234.

Zhang D, Yin  F, and Lin J. 2011. Criteria for assessing juvenile quality of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus. Aquaculture 322-323:255-258.

2010

Anticamara JA, Zeller D, and Vincent ACJ. 2010. Spatial and temporal variation of abundance, biomass and diversity within marine reserves in the Philippines. Diversity and Distributions 16(4):529-536.

Aswani S. 2010. How does the accuracy of fisher knowledge affect seahorse conservation status? Animal Conservation 13:538-538.

Avise JC and Liu J. 2010. Multiple mating and its relationship to alternative modes of gestation in male-pregnant versus female-pregnant fish species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107:18915-18920.

Balcázar JL, Gallo-Bueno A, Planas M, and Pintado J. 2010. Isolation of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio splendidus from captive-bred seahorses with disease symptoms. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 97(2):207-210.

Balcázar JL, Lee NM, Pintado J, and Planas M. 2010. Phylogenetic characterization and in situ detection of bacterial communities associated with seahorses (Hippocampus guttulatus) in captivity. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 33(2):71-77.

Balcázar JL, Loureiro S, Da Silva YJ, Pintado J, and Planas M. 2010. Identification and characterization of bacteria with antibacterial activities isolated from seahorses (Hippocampus guttulatus). The Journal of Antibiotics 63:271-274.

Berglund A. 2010. Evolutionary Biology: Pregnant fathers in charge. Nature 464(7287):364-365.

Goncalves IB, Mobley KB, Ahnesjö I, Sagebakken G, Jones AG, and Kvarnemo C. 2010. Reproductive compensation in broad-nosed pipefish females. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 277(1687):1581-1587.

Dearden P, Theberge M, and Yasué M. 2010. Using underwater cameras to assess the effects of snorkeler and SCUBA diver presence on coral reef fish abundance, family richness, and species composition. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 163(1):531-538.

Downey-Wall AM. 2010. Molecular Population Structure of the Chain Pipefish, Syngnathus Louisianae, in Florida Waters. Thesis submitted to Eckerd College: 32pp.

Dunham N. 2010. The life history and energy budget of Hippocampus erectus in Tampa Bay, Florida. Master Thesis submitted to University of South Florida: 36pp.

Faleiro F and Narciso L. 2010. Lipid dynamics during early development of Hippocampus guttulatus seahorses: Searching for clues on fatty acid requirements. Aquaculture 307(1-2):56-64.

Foster R and Gomon MF. 2010. A new seahorse (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from south-western Australia. Zootaxa(2613):61-68.

Foster SJ and Vincent ACJ. 2010. Tropical shrimp trawl fisheries: Fishers’ knowledge of and attitudes about a doomed fishery. Marine Policy 34:437-446.

Foster SJ and Vincent ACJ. 2010. Using life-history information to assess potential effects of shrimp trawling on small fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 76:2434-2454.

Garcia LMB, Hilomen-Garcia GV, and Calibara RLM. 2010. Culturing seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in illuminated cages with supplementary acetes feeding. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh 62(2):122-129.

Garrick-Maidment N, Trewhella S, Hatcher J, Collins KJ, and Mallinson JJ. 2010. Seahorse Tagging Project, Studland Bay, Dorset, UK. Marine Biodiversity Records 3:1-4.

Gonçalves IB. 2010. Egg size evolution and paternal care in pipefishes. Thesis submitted to the University of Gothenburg:41pp.

Gonçalves IB, Mobley KB, Ahnesjö I, Sagebakken G, Jones AG, and Kvarnemo C. 2010. Reproductive compensation in broad-nosed pipefish females. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society 277(1687):1581-1587.

Gwynne DT, Judge KA, and Kelly CD. 2010. Evidence for male allocation in pipefish? Nature 466:E11; discussion E12.

Harasti D and Glasby T. 2010. Striking a balance between retaining populations of protected seahorses and maintaining swimming nets. Marine and Freshwater 166:159-166.

Harasti D, Glasby T, and Martin-Smith KM. 2010. Striking a balance between retaining populations of protected seahorses and maintaining swimming nets. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20(2):159-166.

Kleiber D, Blight LK, Caldwell IR, and Vincent ACJ. 2010. The importance of seahorses and pipefishes in the diet of marine animals. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 21:205-223.

Koldewey HJ and Martin-Smith KM. 2010. A global review of seahorse aquaculture. Aquaculture 302(3-4):131-152.

Kumaravel K. 2010. Variation in the gut micro flora of seahorses from Indian Waters. Internet Journal of Food Safety 12:95-99.

Kumaravel K, Ravichandran S, Balasubramanian T, Subramanian KS, and Bhat BA. 2010. Antimicrobial effect of five seahorse species from Indian Coast. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 1(2):62-66.

Leysen H, Jouk P, Brunain M, Christiaens J, and Adriaens D. 2010. Cranial architecture of tube-snouted Gasterosteiformes (Syngnathus rostellatus and Hippocampus capensis). Journal of Morphology 271(3):255-270.

Leysen H, Roos G, Van Wassenbergh, and Adriaens D. 2010. Syngnathid feeding apparatus morphology : long vs short snouts. Integrative and Comparative Biology 50(Suppl 1):E101-E101

Lin Q, Lin J, and Liangmin H. 2010. Effects of light intensity, stocking density and temperature on the air-bubble disease, survivorship and growth of early juvenile seahorse Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810. Aquaculture Research 42:91-98.

Lopez A, Vera M, Otero-Ferrer F, Pardo BG, Martinez P, Molina L, and Bouza C. 2010. Species identification and genetic structure of threatened seahorses in Gran Canaria Island (Spain) using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. Conservation Genetics 11(6):2431-2436.

Macreadie PI, Hindell JS, Keough MJ, Jenkins GP, and Connolly RM. 2010. Resource distribution influences positive edge effects in a seagrass fish. Ecology 91:2013-2021.

Maeda K and Tachibara K. 2010. Diel and Seasonal Occurrence Patterns of Drifting Fish Larvae in the Teima Stream, Okinawa Island. Pacific Science 64(2):161-176.

Martins ML, Mouriño JL, Fezer GF, Buglione Neto CC, Garcia P, Silva BC, Jatobá A, and Vieira F. 2010. Isolation and experimental infection with Vibrio alginolyticus in the sea horse, Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933 (Osteichthyes: Syngnathidae) in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 70(1):205-209.

Masonjones HD, Rose E, McRae LB, and Dixson DL. 2010. An examination of the population dynamics of syngnathid fishes within Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Current Zoology 56(1):118-133.

Matsumoto K, Sogabe A, and Yanagisawa Y. 2010. Male Ornamentation in a Sex-Role Reversed Pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus. Ethology 116(3):226-232.

Mobley KB, Small CM, Jue NK, and Jones AG. 2010. Population structure of the dusky pipefish (Syngnathus floridae) from the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses. Journal of Biogeography 37(7):1363-1377.

Molloy PP, Anticamara JA, Rista JL, and Vincent ACJ. 2010. Frugal conservation: What does it take to detect changes in fish populations? Biological Conservation 143:2532-2542.

Nijman V. 2010. An overview of international wildlife trade from Southeast Asia. Biodiversity and Conservation 19(4):1101-1114.

O’Donnell KP, Pajaro  MG, and Vincent ACJ. 2010. How does the accuracy of fisher knowledge affect seahorse conservation status? Animal Conservation 13(6):526-533.

O’Donnell KP, Pajaro  MG, and Vincent ACJ. 2010. Improving conservation and fishery assessments with local knowledge: future directions. Animal Conservation 13:539-540.

Oliveira TPR, Castro ALC, and Rosa IL. 2010. Novel sex-related characteristics of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933. Neotropical Ichthyology 8(2):373-378.

Otero-Ferrer F, Molina L, Socorro Juan, Herrera R, Fernández-Palacios H, and Izquierdo MS. 2010. Live prey first feeding regimes for short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus, 1758) juveniles. Aquaculture Research 41(9):e8-e19.

Paczolt KA and Jones AG. 2010. Post-copulatory sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of male pregnancy. Nature 464:401-404.

Pajaro MG, Mulrennan ME, Alder J, and Vincent ACJ. 2010. Developing MPA effectiveness indicators: Comparison within and across stakeholder groups and communities. Coastal Management 38(2):122-143.

Pajaro MG, Mulrennan ME, and Vincent ACJ. 2010. Toward an integrated marine protected areas policy: connecting the global to the local. Environment, Development and Sustainability 12(6):945-965.

Paladini G, Fioravanti ML, Cable J, and Shinn A. 2010. The description of Gyrodactylus corleonis sp n. and G. neretum sp n. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) with comments on other gyrodactylids parasitising pipefish (Pisces: Syngnathidae). Folia Parasitologica 57(1):17-30.

Panithanarak T, Karuwancharoen R, Na-Nakorn U, and Nguyen TTT. 2010. Population Genetics of the Spotted Seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) in Thai Waters: Implications for Conservation. Zoological Studies 49(4):564-576.

Partridge C, Boettcher A, and Jones AG. 2010. Short-term exposure to a synthetic estrogen disrupts mating dynamics in a pipefish. Hormones and Behavior 58:800-807.

Perry AL, Lunn KE, and Vicent ACJ. 2010. Fisheries, large-scale trade, and conservation of seahorses in Malaysia and Thailand. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20(4):464-475.

Planas M, Quintas P, Chamorro A, and Silva C. 2010. Female maturation, egg characteristics and fatty acids profile in the seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Animal Reproduction Science 122:66-73.

Purcell SW, Dalton SJ, and Smith SDA. 2010. Critical Habitats of Selected Threatened Marine Species in Northern NSW. Report submitted to the Northern Rivers Catchment Management Authority:35pp.

Quintas P, Planas M, and Purser GJ. 2010. Biochemical composition and enzymatic activities in juveniles of the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis and the effect of Artemia enrichment. Aquaculture Europe 2010 Seafarming 3050:1053-1054.

Raj ST, Lipton AP, and Chauhan GS. 2010. Characterization and infectivity evaluation of Vibrio harveyi causing white patch disease among captive reared seahorses, Hippocampus kuda. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 39:151-156.

Randall JE, McKeon CS, Anker A, and Bacchet P. 2010. First records of the pipefishes Minyichthys myersi and Micrognathus andersonii from the Society Islands. Cybium 34(3):315-316.

Ripley JL and Foran CM. 2010. Elevated whole brain arginine vasotocin with Aroclor 1254 exposure in two Syngnathus pipefishes. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 36:917-921.

Ripley JL and Foran CM. 2010. Quantification of whole brain arginine vasotocin for two Syngnathus pipefishes: elevated concentrations correlated with paternal brooding. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 36(4):867-874.

Ripley JL, Williams PS, and Foran CM 2010. Morphological and quantitative changes in paternal brood-pouch vasculature during embryonic development in two Syngnathus pipefishes. Journal of Fish Biology 77(1):67-79.

Roos G, Wassenbergh SV, Herrel A, Adriaens D, and Aerts P. 2010. Snout allometry in seahorses: insights on optimisation of pivot feeding performance during ontogeny. Journal of Experimental Biology 213(13):2184-2193.

Ryu B, Qian ZJ, and Kim SK. 2010. Purification of a peptide from seahorse, that inhibits TPA-induced MMP, iNOS and COX-2 expression through MAPK and NF-kappaB activation, and induces human osteoblastic and chondrocytic differentiation. Chemical-Biological Interaction 184(3): 413-422.

Ryu B, Qian ZJ, and Kim SK. 2010. SHP-1, a novel peptide isolated from seahorse inhibits collagen release through the suppression of collagenases 1 and 3, nitric oxide products regulated by NF-kappaB/p38 kinase. Peptides 31(1):79-87.

Saarman NP, Louie KD, and Hamilton H. 2010. Genetic differentiation across eastern Pacific oceanographic barriers in the threatened seahorse Hippocampus ingens. Conservation Genetics 11(5):1989-2000.

Sagebakken G, Ahnesjö I, Mobley KB, Gonçalves IB, and Kvarnemo C. 2010. Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society 277:971-977.

Sanna D, Merella P, Lai T, Farjallah S, Francalacci P, Curini-Galletti M, Pais A, and Casu M. 2010. Combined analysis of four mitochondrial regions allowed the detection of several matrilineal lineages of the lessepsian fish Fistularia commersonii in the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 91:1289-1293.

Santos CA, Novaes LS, and Gomes LC. 2010. Genotoxic effects of the diesel water-soluble fraction on the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) during acute exposure. Zoologia (Curitiba, Impresso) 27:956-960.

Scales H. 2010. Advances in the ecology, biogeography and conservation of seahorses (genus Hippocampus). Progress in Physical Geography 34(4):443-458.

Sebastian P, Schaefer H, and Renner SS. 2010. Darwin’s Galapagos gourd: providing new insights 175 years after his visit. Journal of Biogeography 37:975-978.

Sheppard JN. 2010. Structure and functioning of fish assemblages in two South African estuaries, with emphasis on the presence and absence of aquatic macrophyte beds. Master Thesis submitted to Rhodes Universty:310pp.

Silva K, Vieira MN, Almada VC, and Monteiro NM. 2010. Reversing sex role reversal: compete only when you must. Animal Behaviour 79(4):885-893.

Silveira RB and Fontoura NF. 2010. Fecundity and fertility of the longsnout seahorse, Hippocampus reidi ( Teleostei : Syngnathidae ), in tropical Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biosciences 8:362-367.

Smith JE, Macreadie PI, and Swearer SE. 2010. An osmotic induction method for externally marking saltwater fishes, Stigmatopora argus and Stigmatopora nigra ,with calcein. Journal of Fish Biology 76:1055-1060.

Smith TM, Hindell JS, Jenkins GP, and Connolly RM. 2010. Seagrass patch size affects fish responses to edges. Journal of Animal Ecology 79(1):275-281.

Sogabe A. 2010. Partner recognition in a perennially monogamous pipefish, Corythoichthys haematopterus. Journal of Ethology 29:191-196.

Sundin J, Berglund A, and Rosenqvist G. 2010. Turbidity hampers mate choice in a pipefish. Ethology 116(8):713-721.

Taskavak E, Gürkana S, Severa TM, Akalına S, and Özaydına O. 2010. Gut contents and feeding habits of the Great Pipefish, Syngnathus acus Linnaeus, 1758, in Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea, Turkey). Zoology in the Middle East 50:75-82.

Thangaraj M. 2010. Genetic Identity of Three Indian Populations of Three Spotted Seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus. Advances in Biological Research 4:37-41.

Tindemans D, Rekecki A, and Van Den Broeck W. 2010. Development of the digestive tract in the seahorse (Hippocampus erectus P.). Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 79(3):207-212.

Van Cauter S, Adriaens D, Kannan S, Srigiriraju S, Praet T, Masschaele B, De Beule M, and Verhegghe B. 2010. Virtual design from nature : kinematic modeling of the seahorse tail. 2010 SIMULIA Customer Conference Proceedings, SIMULIA:770-783.

Vaughan DB, Christison KW, Hansen H, and Shinn AP. 2010. Gyrodactylus eyipayipi sp. n. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from Syngnathus acus (Syngnathidae) from South Africa. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 57(1):11-15.

Whitfield AK. 2010. A century of fish research in South African estuaries. African Journal of Aquatic Science 35:211-225.

Whitfield AK and Cowley PD. 2010. The status of fish conservation in South African estuaries. Journal of Fish Biology 76:2067-2089.

Wilson NG and Rouse GW. 2010. Convergent camouflage and the non-monophyly of ‘seadragons’ (Syngnathidae: Teleostei): suggestions for a revised taxonomy of syngnathids. Zoologica Scripta 39(6):551-558.

Xu YJ, Lin J, and Chen S. 2010. Polyculture of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 with two species of macroalgae in aquaria. Acta Oceanologica Sinica 29(1):26-32.

Yasué M, Kaufman L, and Vincent ACJ. 2010. Assessing ecological changes in and around marine reserves using community perceptions and biological surveys. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20:407-418.

Zhang D, Zhang Y, Lin J, and Lin Q. 2010. Growth and survival of juvenile lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus (Perry), at different stocking densities. Aquaculture Research 42:9-13.

2009

Ban NC. 2009. Minimum data requirements for designing a set of marine protected areas, using commonly available abiotic and biotic datasets. Biodiversity and Conservation 18(7):1829-1845.

Ban NC, Hansen GJA, Jones M, and Vincent ACJ. 2009. Systematic marine conservation planning in data-poor regions: Socioeconomic data is essential. Marine Policy 33:794-800.

Ban NC, Picard CR, and Vincent ACJ. 2009. Comparing and integrating community-based and science-based approaches to prioritizing marine areas for protection. Conservation Biology 23:899-910.

Ban NC and Vincent ACJ. 2009. Beyond marine reserves: exploring the approach of selecting areas where fishing is permitted, rather than prohibited. PLoS ONE 4(7):e6258.

Barrows AP, Martin-Smith KM, and Baine MS. 2009. Population variables and life-history characteristics of the alligator pipefish Syngnathoides biaculeatus, in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Fish Biology 74(4):806-819.

Berglund A and Rosenqvist G. 2009. An intimidating ornament in a female pipefish. Behavioral Ecology 20(1):54-59.

Blake RW. 2009. On seahorse locomotion. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 56(04):939.

Burfeind DD, Tibbetts IR, and Udy JW. 2009. Habitat preference of three common fishes for seagrass, Caulerpa taxifolia, and unvegetated substrate in Moreton Bay, Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 84(3):317-322.

Da Hora MDC and Joyeux JC. 2009. Closing the reproductive cycle: Growth of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) from birth to adulthood under experimental conditions. Aquaculture 292(1-2):37-41.

Ebeling J and Yasué M. 2009. The effectiveness of market-based conservation in the tropics: forest certification in Ecuador and Bolivia. Journal of Environmental Management 90:1145-1153.

Flammang BE, Ferry-Graham LA, Rinewalt C, Ardizzone D, Davis C, and Trejo T. 2009. Prey capture kinematics and four-bar linkages in the bay pipefish, Syngnathus leptorhynchus. Zoology 112(2):86-96.

Garcia LMB and Hilomen-Garcia GB. 2009. Grow-out of juvenile seahorse Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker; Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in illuminated sea cages. Aquaculture Research 40(2):211-217.

Gomon MF and Kuiter RH. 2009. Two new pygmy seahorses (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from the Indo-West Pacific. Aqua: International Journal of Ichthyology 15:37-44.

Goswami M, Thangaraj K, Chaudhary BK, Bhaskar LVSK, Gopalakrishnan A, Joshi MB, Singh L, and Lakra WS. 2009. Genetic heterogeneity in the Indian stocks of seahorse (Hippocampus kuda and Hippocampus trimaculatus) inferred from mtDNA cytochrome b gene. Hydrobiologia 621:213-221.

Grémillet D and Boulinier T. 2009. Spatial ecology and conservation of seabirds facing global climate change: a review. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 391:121-137.

Gurkan S, Taskavak E, and Hossucu B. 2009. The reproductive biology of the Great Pipefish Syngnathus acus (Family: Syngnathidae) in the Aegean Sea. North-Western Journal of Zoology 5(1):179-190.

Hora MDSCD and Joyeux JC. 2009. Closing the reproductive cycle: Growth of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) from birth to adulthood under experimental conditions. Aquaculture 292:37-41.

Ishihara T and Tachihara K. 2009. The maturity and breeding season of the bellybarred pipefish, Hippichthys spicifer, in Okinawa-jima Island rivers. Ichthyological Research 56(4):388-393.

Johnson SW, Thedinga JF, and Neff AD. 2009. Invasion by saffron cod Eleginus gracilis into nearshore habitats of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 389:203-212.

Khan SB, Qian Z, Ryu B, and Kim S. 2009. Isolation and biochemical characterization of collagens from seaweed pipefish, Syngnathus Schlegeli. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 14(4):436-442.

Køie M and Karlsbakk E. 2009. Ellipsomyxa syngnathi sp n. (Myxozoa, Myxosporea) in the pipefish Syngnathus typhle and S. rostellatus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) from Denmark. Parasitology Research 105(6):1611-1616.

**Kuiter, R. H. (2009). Seahorses and their Relatives. Seaford, Australia, Aquapresse.

Lin Q, Lin J, and Huang L. 2009. Effects of substrate color, light intensity and temperature on survival and skin color change of juvenile seahorses, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810. Aquaculture 298(1-2):157-161.

Lin Q, Lin J, and Wang C. 2009. Biochemical composition of the wild and cultured seahorses, Hippocampus kuda Bleeker and Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach. Aquaculture Research 40(6):710-719.

Lin, Q, Lin J, Zhang D, and Wang Y. 2009. Weaning of juvenile seahorses Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 from live to frozen food. Aquaculture 291(3-4):224-229.

Lin Q, Zhang D, and Lin D. 2009. Effects of light intensity, stocking density, feeding frequency and salinity on the growth of sub-adult seahorses Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810. Aquaculture 292(1-2):111-116.

Lopez MA and Gisbert E. 2009. Evaluation of a by-catch reduction device for glass eel fishing traps. Fisheries Management and Ecology 16(6):438-447.

Mai ACG and Rosa IL. 2009. Ecological aspects of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi in the Camurupim/Cardoso estuary, Piauí State, Brazil, as subsidies for the implementation of an Environmental Protection Area. Biota Neotropica 9:85-91.

Maidment-Garrick N. 2009. A note on the status of indigenous species of sea horse. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 78:691-692.

Malavasi S, Riccato F, Georgalas V, Franzoi P, and Torricelli P. 2009. Occurrence and intensity of intercohort cannibalism of post-hatching stages in the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 25(4):79-480.

Masonjones HD and Rose E. 2009. Reproductive demographics of syngnathid fishes inhabiting a human-altered landscape. Integrative and Comparative Biology 49:E267-E267.

Mattle B and Wilson AB. 2009. Body size preferences in the pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis: choosy males and indiscriminate females. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63(10):1403-1410.

Mobley KB and Jones AG. 2009. Environmental, demographic, and genetic mating system variation among five geographically distinct dusky pipefish (Syngnathus floridae) populations. Molecular Ecology 18(7):1476-1490.

Murugan A, Dhanya S, Sreepada RA, Rajagopal S, and Balasubramanian T. 2009. Breeding and mass-scale rearing of three spotted seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach under captive conditions. Aquaculture 290(1-2):87-96.

Naud MJ, Curtis JMR, Woodall LC, and Gaspar MB. 2009. Mate choice, operational sex ratio, and social promiscuity in a wild population of the long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus.8 Behavioral Ecology 20(1):160-164.

Neumann H,Reiss H, Rakers S, Ehrich S, and Kroncke I. 2009. Temporal variability in southern North Sea epifauna communities after the cold winter of 1995/1996. Ices Journal of Marine Science 66(10):2233-2243.

Ooi JLS. 2009. Mr Mom: can we deliver? The Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care 35:56-58.

Otsuka Y, Suzuki H, and Akagawa I. 2009. Occurrence, gonad morphology and maturity of Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei in Matsushima Bay, Japan. Journal of the School of Marine Science and Technology Tokai University 7(1):11-22.

Ozaka C, Yamamoto N, and Somiya H. 2009. The aglomerular kidney of the deep-sea fish, Ateleopus japonicus (Ateleopodiformes: Ateleopodidae): Evidence of wider occurrence of the aglomerular condition in teleostei. Copeia(3):609-617.

Partridge C. 2009. The effect of environmental contaminants on mating dynamics and population viability in a sex-role reversed pipefish. Doctoral dissertation submitted to Texas A&M University:179pp.

Partridge C, Ahnesjö I, Kvarnemo C, Mobley KB, Berglund A, and Jones AG. 2009. The effect of perceived female parasite load on post-copulatory male choice in a sex-role-reversed pipefish. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63(3):345-354.

Qian Z, Ryu B, Kim M, and Kim S. 2009. Free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of the extracts from seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeler. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 13(6):705-715.

Quintas P, Planas M, and Purser GJ. 2009. The effect of artemia enrichment on the early rearing of the pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Journal Of The World Aquaculture Society 3:1055-1056.

Randall JE and Lourie SA. 2009. Hippocampus tyro, a new seahorse (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae) from the Seychelles. Smithiana Bulletin 10:19-21.

Ratterman NL, Rosenthal GG, and Jones AG. 2009. Sex recognition via chemical cues in the sex-role-reversed Gulf Pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli). Ethology 115(4):339-346.

Rioux M. 2009. Poseidon’s Steed: The Story of Seahorses, from Myth to Reality. Library Journal 134(11):89-89.

Ripley JL. 2009. Osmoregulatory role of the paternal brood pouch for two Syngnathus species. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology- Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 154(1):98-104.

Ripley JL and Foran CM. 2009. Direct evidence for embryonic uptake of paternally-derived nutrients in two pipefishes (Syngnathidae: Syngnathus spp.). Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 179(3):325-333.

Ripley JL and Foran CM. 2009. Quantification of whole brain arginine vasotocin for two Syngnathus pipefishes: elevated concentrations correlated with paternal brooding. Fish Physiology Biochemistry 36(4):867-874.

Ripley JL and Foran CM. 2009. Elevated whole brain arginine vasotocin with Aroclor 1254 exposure in two Syngnathus pipefishes. Fish Physiology Biochemistry 36(4):917-921.

Roos G, Leysen H, Van Wassenbergh S, Herrel A, Jacobs P, Dierick M, Aerts P, and Adriaens D. 2009. Linking morphology and motion: a test of a four-bar mechanism in seahorses. Physiological Biochemical Zoology 82(1):7-19.

Roos G, Van Wassenbergh S, Herrel A, and Aerts P. 2009. Kinematics of suction feeding in the seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Journal of Experimental Biology 212(21):3490.

Scobell SK, Fudicker AM, and Knapp R. 2009. Potential reproductive rate of a sex-role reversed pipefish over several bouts of mating. Animal Behaviour 78(3):747-753.

Shine R, Greenlees M, Crossland M, and Nelson D. 2009. The myth of the toad-eating frog. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7:359-361.

Shokri MR, Gladstone W, and Jelbart J. 2009. The effectiveness of seahorses and pipefish (Pisces: Syngnathidae) as a flagship group to evaluate the conservation value of estuarine seagrass beds. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19(5):588-595.

Silva K, Almada VC, Vieira MN, and Monteiro NM. 2009. Female reproductive tactics in a sex-role reversed pipefish: scanning for male quality and number. Behavioral Ecology 20(4):768-772.

Smith T, Gibbs M, and Smith D. 2009. Fishing for more effective incentives. Science 323:337-337.

Storero LP and Gonzalez RA. 2009. Prey selectivity and trophic behavior of the Patagonian Seahorse, Hippocampus patagonicus, in captivity. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 40(3):394-401.

Teske PR and Beheregaray LB. 2009. Evolution of seahorses’ upright posture was linked to Oligocene expansion of seagrass habitats. Biology Letters 5(4):521-523.

Thomas GH. 2009. Bergmann’s idiosyncratic rule: a role for fecundity selection? Molecular Ecology 18(6):1027-1029.

Turpie J, Joubert A, Babiker H, Chaudhry J, Child M, Hempson T, Humphrey G, Joseph G, La Grange R, Lipsey M, Mann G, Okes N, Puttick J, and Wistebaar T. 2009. Integrated Ecological-Economic Modelling as an Estuarine Management Tool: A Case Study of the East Kleinemonde Estuary. Report submitted to the Water Research Commission:65pp.

Van Wassenbergh, Roos G, and Aerts P. 2009. Pivot feeding performance in pipefish and seahorses analysed by forward dynamic modelling. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 153A(2):S125-S126.

Van Wassenbergh S, Roos G, Genbrugge A, Leysen H, Aerts P, Adriaens D, and Herrel A. 2009. Suction is kid’s play: extremely fast suction in newborn seahorses. Biology Letters 5(2): 200-203.

Weis JS, Weis P, MacDonald J, and Pearson L. 2009. Rapid changes in fish utilization of mangrove habitat in Western Madagascar. Wetlands Ecology and Management 17(4):345-354.

Wilson AB. 2009. Fecundity selection predicts Bergmann’s rule in syngnathid fishes. Molecular Ecology 18(6):1263-1272.

Wilson AB. 2009. Opening Pandora’s box: comparative studies of genetic mating systems reveal reproductive complexity. Molecular Ecology 18(7):1307-1309.

Woodall LC, Koldewey HJ, Santos SV, and Shaw PW. 2009. First occurrence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Fish Biology 75:1505-1512.

Yasué M and Dearden P. 2009. The importance of supratidal habitats for wintering shorebirds and the potential impacts of shrimp aquaculture. Environmental Management 43(6):1108-1121.

Zalohar J, Hitij T, and Kriznar M. 2009. Two new species of seahorses (Syngnathidae, Hippocampus) from the Middle Miocene (Sarmatian) Coprolitic Horizon in Tunjice Hills, Slovenia: The oldest fossil record of seahorses. Annales De Paleontologie 95(2):71-96.

2008

Ahnesjo I. 2008. Behavioural temperature preference in a brooding male pipefish Syngnathus typhle. Journal of Fish Biology 73(4):1039-1045.

Anonymous. 2008. Pipefish – No substitute for sandeels if you are a hungry seabird. British Birds 101(7):376-377.

Astporsson OS and Palsson J. 2008. Recent increase in snake pipefish (Entelurus aequoreus) in Icelandic waters. Natturufraedingurinn 77(1-2):59-62.

Baine MSP, Barrow APW, Ganiga G, and Martin-Smith KM. 2008. Residence and movement of pygmy seahorses, Hippocampus bargibanti, on sea fans (Muricella spp.). Coral Reefs 27(2):421-421.

Ban NC and Alder J. 2008. How wild is the ocean? Assessing the intensity of anthropogenic marine activities in British Columbia , Canada. Main 85:55-85.

Ban NC, Picard C, and Vincent ACJ. 2008. Moving Toward Spatial Solutions in Marine Conservation with Indigenous Communities. Ecology And Society 13:32pp.

Ben Amor MM, Ben Salem M, Ben Souissi J, and Capape C.. 2008. Occurrence of Nilsson’s Pipefish Syngnathus Rostellatus (Osteichthyes: Syngnathidae) in the Gulf of Tunis (Central Mediterranean). Vie Et Milieu-Life and Environment 58(3-4):189-192.

Bijukumar A, Abraham KM, and Soumya D. 2008. Morphometry and Meristics of Longnose Seahorse, Hippocampus Trimaculatus (Actinopterygii: Syngnathidae), from Kerala, South-West Coast of India. Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria 38(2):149-155.

Browne RK, Baker JL, and Connolly RM. 2008. Chapter 13: Syngnathids: Seadragons, Seahorses, and Pipefishes of Gulf St Vincent. Natural history of Gulf St Vincent. Royal Society of South Australia (Inc):162-176.

Bruner R and Bartolino V. 2008. Morphological Variation in the Seahorse Vertebral System. International Journal of Morphology 26(2):247-262.

Castro AL, Diniz A, Martins IZ, Vendel AL, Oliveria TPR, and Rosa IML. 2008. Assessing diet composition of seahorses in the wild using a non destructive method: Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) as a study-case. Neotropical Ichthyology 6(4):637-644.

Clynick BG 2008. Harbour swimming nets: a novel habitat for seahorses. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18(5):483-492.

Curtis JMR and Vincent ACJ. 2008. Use of Population Viability Analysis to Evaluate CITES Trade-Management Options for Threatened Marine Fishes. Conservation Biology 22(5):1225-1232.

Dzyuba BB, Van Look KJ, Kholodnyy VS, Satake N, Cheung S, and Holt WV. 2008. Variable sperm size and motility activation in the pipefish, Syngnathus abaster; adaptations to paternal care or environmental plasticity? Reproduction Fertilization and Development 20(4):474-482.

Ebeling J and Yasué M. 2008. Generating carbon finance through avoided deforestation and its potential to create climatic, conservation and human development benefits. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 363:1917-1924.

Faleiro F, Narciso L, and Vicente L. 2008. Seahorse behaviour and aquaculture: How to improve Hippocampus guttulatus husbandry and reproduction? Aquaculture 282(1-4):33-40.

**FAO (2008). CITES issues with respect to fish trade and CITES/FAO Memorandum of Understanding. Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

Forsgren KL and Young KA. 2008. Gonadal morphology of the weedy seadragon, Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepede): characterisation of ovarian and testicular maturation. Australian Journal of Zoology 56(6):441-446.

Freret-Meurer NV and Andreata JV. 2008. Field studies of a Brazilian Seahorse population, Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 51(4):743-751.

Gehring G and Ruffing E. 2008. When arguments prevail over power: The CITES procedure for the listing of endangered species. Global Environmental Politics 8(2):27pp.

Harris MP, Newell M, Daunt F, and Speakman JR. 2008. Snake Pipefish Entelurus aequoreus are poor food for seabirds. Ibis 150(2):413-415.

Ishihara T and Tachihara K. 2008. Reproduction and early development of a freshwater pipefish Microphis leiaspis in Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. Ichthyological Research 55(4):349-355.

James NC, Whitfield AK, and Cowley PD. 2008. Preliminary indications of climate-induced change in a warm-temperate South African estuarine fish community. Journal of Fish Biology 72:1855-1863.

James NC, Whitfield AK, and Cowley PD. 2008. Long-term stability of the fish assemblages in a warm-temperate South African estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 76:723-738.

Kawahara R, Miya M, Mabuchi K, Lavoué S, Inoue JG, Satoh TP, Kawaguchi A, and Nishida M. 2008. Interrelationships of the 11 gasterosteiform families (sticklebacks, pipefishes, and their relatives): A new perspective based on whole mitogenome sequences from 75 higher teleosts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46(1):224-236.

Kéry M and Schmidt B. 2008. Imperfect detection and its consequences for monitoring for conservation. Community Ecology 9(2):207-216.

Kitsos MS, Tzomos T, Anagnostopoulou L, and Koukouras A. 2008. Diet composition of the seahorses, Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier, 1829 and Hippocampus hippocampus (L., 1758) (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) in the Aegean Sea. Journal of Fish Biology 72(6):1259-1267.

Krupczynski R. 2008. Diversity of fin-activation patterns in the longsnout seahorse, Hippocampus reidi. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology a-Molecular & Integrative Physiology 150(3):S108-S109.

Li Y, Qian Z, and Kim S. 2008. Cathepsin B inhibitory activities of three new phthalate derivatives isolated from seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeler. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 18(23):6130-6134.

Lin Q, Lin J, and Zhang D. 2008. Breeding and juvenile culture of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry,1810. Aquaculture 277(3-4):287-292.

Lin Q, Lin J, Lu J, and Li B. 2008. Biochemical composition of six seahorse species, Hippocampus sp., from the Chinese coast. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 39(2):225-234.

Lourie SA and Kuiter RH. 2008. Three new pygmy seahorse species from Indonesia (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus). Zootaxa 68:54-68.

Lunn K, Noriega VMJ, and Vincent ACJ. 2008. Souvenirs from the sea: an investigation into the curio trade in echinoderms from Mexico. Traffic Bull 22:19-32.

Martinez-Cardenas L, Porter M, and Purser GJ. 2008. Light-dark variations in plasma melatonin concentrations in the pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson, 1827. Journal of Fish Biology 72(7):1799-1803.

Morgan SK, Curtis JMR, and Vincent ACJ. 2008. Axes of excellence: a role for students as community-engaged scholars. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6:105-106.

Morgan SK and Panes HM. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 (Syngnathidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 82(1):21-22.

Murugan A, Dhanya S, and Rajagopal S. 2008. Seahorses and pipefishes of the Tamil Nadu coast. Current Science 95(2):253-260.

Nadeau JL, Curtis JMR, and Lourie SA. 2008. Preservation causes shrinkage in seahorses: implications for biological studies and for managing sustainable trade with minimum size limits. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19(4):428-438.

Naud MJ, Curtis JMR, Woodall LC, and Gaspar MB. 2008. Mate choice, operational sex ratio, and social promiscuity in a wild population of the long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Behavioral Ecology 20:160-164.

Okuzawa K, Maliao RJ, Quinitio ET, Buen-Ursua SMA, Lebata MJHL, Gallardo WG, Garcia LMB, and Primavera JH. 2008. Stock enhancement of threatened species in Southeast Asia. Reviews in Fisheries Science 16(1-3):394-402.

Olivotto I, Avella MA, Sampaolesi G, Piccinetti CC, Ruiz PN, and Carnevali O. 2008. Breeding and rearing the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi: Rearing and feeding studies. Aquaculture 283(1-4):92-96.

Palma J, Stockdale J, Correia M, and Andrade JP. 2008. Growth and survival of adult long snout seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) using frozen diets. Aquaculture 278(1-4):55-59.

Patron JJ, Herrera AA, Oconer EP. 2008. Prolactin and growth hormone levels in the pouch fluid of gravid male seahorse, Hipocampus barbouri Jordan and Richardson 1908. Asia Life Sciences 17(2):261-269.

Planas M, Chamorro A, Quintas P, and Vilar A. 2008. Establishment and maintenance of threatened long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus, broodstock in captivity. Aquaculture 283:19-28.

Polte P and Buschbaum C. 2008. Native pipefish Entelurus aequoreus are promoted by the introduced seaweed Sargassum muticum in the northern Wadden Sea, North Sea. Aquatic Biology 3(1):11-18.

Qian ZJ, Ryu B, Kim M, and Kim S. 2008. Free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of the extracts from seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeler. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 13(6):705-715.

Ripley JL and Foran CM. 2008. Interspecific differences of parental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure on nutrient availability, egg production and brooding in two Syngnathus species. Journal of Fish Biology 72(6):1369-1385.

Rispoli VF and Wilson AB. 2008. Sexual size dimorphism predicts the frequency of multiple mating in the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21(1):30-38.

Roos G, Leysen H, Van Wassenbergh S, Herrel A, Jacobs P, Dierick M, Aerts P, and Adriaens D. 2008. Linking morphology and motion: A test of a four-bar mechanism in seahorses. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 82:7-19.

Sanders JG, Cribbs JE, Fienberg HG, Hulburd GC, Katz LS, and Palumbi SR. 2008. The tip of the tail: molecular identification of seahorses for sale in apothecary shops and curio stores in California. Conservation Genetics 9(1):65-71.

Sanna D, Addis A, Biagi F, Motzo C, Carcupino M, and Francalacci P. 2008. mtDNA control region and D-HPLC analysis: a method to evaluate the mating system in Syngnathidae (Teleostei). Marine Biology 153(3):269-275.

Silva K, Vieira MN, Almada VC, and Monteiro NM. 2008. Can the limited marsupium space be a limiting factor for Syngnathus abaster females? Insights from a population with size-assortative mating. Journal of Animal Ecology 77(2):390-394.

Simpson SD, Meekan MG, Jeffs A, Montgomery JC, and McCauley RD. 2008. Settlement-stage coral reef fish prefer the higher-frequency invertebrate-generated audible component of reef noise. Animal Behaviour 75:1861-1868.

Smith RE and Tibbetts IR. 2008. Mating and birth of Denise’s pygmy seahorses (Hippocampus denise) observed in the wild. Coral Reefs 27(3):617-617.

Smith TM, Hindell JS, Jenkins GP, and Connolly RM. 2008. Edge effects on fish associated with seagrass and sand patches. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 359:203-213.

Sogabe A, Matsumoto K, Ohashi M, Watanabe A, Takata H, Murakami Y, Omori K, and Yanagisawa Y. 2008. A monogamous pipefish has the same type of ovary as observed in monogamous seahorses. Biology Letters 4(4):362-365.

Sogabe A and Yanagisawa Y. 2008. Maintenance of pair bond during the non-reproductive season in a monogamous pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus. Journal of Ethology 26(1):195-199.

Storero LP and Gonzalez RA. 2008. Feeding habits of the seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus in San Antonio Bay (Patagonia, Argentina). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 88(7):1503-1508.

Takata Y, Shibukawa K, and Shinohara G. 2008. Records of the pipefish Dunckerocampus naia (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae) from Japan. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 55(2):135-138.

Thangaraj M and Lipton AP. 2008. Survival and growth of captive reared juvenile seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) fed live feeds and fishmeal. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh 60(3):185-189.

Tolan J. 2008. A reexamination of Syngnathus affinis Gunter 1870, with comparisons to Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann and Kendall 1896) (Teleostei : Syngnathidae). Texas Journal of Science 60(2):83-96.

van Damine CJG and Couperus AS. 2008. Mass occurrence of snake pipefish in the Northeast Atlantic: Result of a change in climate? Journal of Sea Research 60(1-2):117-125.

Van Wassenbergh S and Aerts P. 2008. Rapid pivot feeding in pipefish: flow effects on prey and evaluation of simple dynamic modelling via computational fluid dynamics. J R Soc Interface 5(28):1291-1301.

Van Wassenbergh S, Strother JA, Flammang BE, Ferry-Graham LA, and Aerts P. 2008. Extremely fast prey capture in pipefish is powered by elastic recoil. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 5(20):285-296.

Vorwerk PD, Froneman PW, Paterson AW, Strydom NA, and Whitfield AK. 2008. Biological responses to a resumption in river flow in a freshwater-deprived, permanently open Southern African estuary. Water Sa 34(5):597-604.

Vorwerk PD, Froneman PW, Paterson AW, and Whitfield AK. 2008. Fish community response to increased river flow in the Kariega Estuary, a freshwater-deprived, permanently open southern African system. African Journal of Aquatic Science 33:189-200.

Whitfield AK, Adams JB, Bate GC, Bezuidenhout K, Bornman TG, and Cowley PD. 2008. A multidisciplinary study of a small, temporarily open/closed South African estuary, with particular emphasis on the influence of mouth state on the ecology of the system. African Journal of Marine Science 30:453-473.

Wilkinson C. 2008. Status of coral reefs of the world: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, Australia:296pp.

Williams SR, Kritsky DC, Dunnigan B, Lash R, and Klein P. 2008. Gyrodactylus pisculentus sp n. (Monogenoidea: Gyrodactylidae) associated with mortality of the northern pipefish, Syngnathus fuscus (Syngnathiformes: Syngnathidae) at the Woods Hole Science Aquarium. Folia Parasitologica 55(4):265-269.

2007

Blankenhorn S. 2007. Seaweed farming and artisanal fisheries in an Indonesian seagrass bed-Complementory or competitive usages? Ph.D. study collaboration between AWI, ZMT Bremen, University of Bremen and the University of Hassanuddin.

Curtis JMR, Joaquim R, Erzini K, and Vincent ACJ. 2007. A conservation trade-off? Interspecific differences in seahorse responses to experimental changes in fishing effort. Aquatic Conservation 17(5):468-484.

Curtis JMR. 2007. Validation of a method for estimating realized annual fecundity in a multiple spawner, the long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus), using underwater visual census. Fishery Bulletin 105(3):327-336.

Goh TY and O’Riordan RM. 2007. Are tortoises and freshwater turtles still traded illegally as pets in Singapore? Oryx 41(1):97-100.

Hora MSC and Joyeux JC. 2007. Cultivo de cavalo marinho, Hippocampus reidi ginsburg, 1933 (Teleostei: syngnathidae). XII Congresso Latino-Americano de Ciências do Mar – XII Colacmar, Florianópolis:39pp.

James NC. 2007. Trends in fish community structure and recruitment in a temporarily open/closed South African estuary. Thesis submitted to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 342pp.

James NC, Cowley PD, Whitfield AK, and Lamberth SJ. 2007. Fish communities in temporarily open/closed estuaries from the warm-and cool-temperate regions of South Africa: A review. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 17:565-580.

Kloppmann MH and Ulleweit J. 2007. Off-shelf distribution of pelagic snake pipefish, Entelurus aequoreus (Linnaeus, 1758), west of the British Isles. Marine Biology 151(1):271-275.

Kowalczyk W and Delgado A. 2007. Simulation of fluid flow in a channel induced by three types of fin-like motion. Journal of Bionic Engineering 4(3):165-176.

Kvarnemo C, Moore GI, and Jones AG. 2007. Sexually selected females in the monogamous Western Australian seahorse. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 274(1609):521-525.

Lin Q, Gao Y, Sheng J, Chen Q, Zhang B, and Lu J. 2007. The effects of food and the sum of effective temperature on the embryonic development of the seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeker. Aquaculture 262(2-4):481-492.

Lipton AP and Thangaraj M. 2007. Evaluation of a simple tagging method to monitor the growth of endangered species of seahorse. Current Science 92(11):1631-1632.

Marcus JE, Samoilys MA, Meeuwig JJ, Villongco ZA, and Vincent ACJ. 2007. Benthic status of near-shore fishing grounds in the central Philippines and associated seahorse densities. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54(9):1483-1494.

Martinez-Cardenas L and Purser GJ. 2007. Effect of tank colour on Artemia ingestion, growth and survival in cultured early juvenile pot-bellied seahorses (Hippocampus abdominalis). Aquaculture 264(1-4):92-100.

Mobley KB. 2007. Geographic and temporal variation in the genetic mating systems of pipefish. Doctoral dissertation submitted to Texas A&M University:164pp.

Morgan SK. 2007. The ontogenetic ecology and conservation of exploited tropical seahorses. Doctoral thesis submitted to Mcgill University:296pp.

Morgan SK and Panes HM. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 (Syngnathidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 82:21-22.

Morgan SK and Vincent ACJ. 2007. The ontogeny of habitat associations in the tropical tiger tail seahorse Hippocampus comes Cantor, 1850. Journal of Fish Biology 71:701-724.

Mosk V, Thomas N, Hart NS, Partridge JC, Beazley LD, and Shand J. 2007. Spectral sensitivities of the seahorses Hippocampus subelongatus and Hippocampus barbouri and the pipefish Stigmatopora argus. Visual Neuroscience 24(03):345-354.

Mwale M. 2007. The biology and systematics of South African pipefishes of the genus Syngnathus. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Rhodes University: 402pp.

Navojoa S. 2007. The effect of two frozen natural foods on the routine metabolism and ammonia excretion of the pacific seahorse Hippocampus ingens. Journal of Fisheries International 2(1):91-98.

Nielsen JL. 2007. President’s Hook: Exploitation and the conservation of nourishing males – Project Seahorse. Fisheries 32(4):160-161.

Nijman V and Shepherd CR. 2007. Trade in non-native, CITES-listed, wildlife in Asia, as exemplified by the trade in freshwater turtles and tortoises (Chelodina) in Thailand. Contributions to Zoology 76(3):207-212.

Oliveira F, Erzini K, and Gonçalves JMS. 2007. Feeding habits of the deep-snouted pipefish Syngnathus typhle in a temperate coastal lagoon. Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science 72(1-2):337-347.

Pardo BG, Lopez A, Martinez P, and Bouza C. 2007. Novel microsatellite loci in the threatened European long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) for genetic diversity and parentage analysis. Conservation Genetics 8(5):1243-1245.

**Pelz, S. and K. Velling. 2007. Dragon fish. Koralle 7(6)(42):80-83.

Ripley JL and Foran CM. 2007. Influence of estuarine hypoxia on feeding and sound production by two sympatric pipefish species (Syngnathidae). Marine Environmental Research 63(4):350-367.

Rivalan P, Delmas V, Angulo E, Bull LS, Hall RJ, Courchamp F, Rosser AM, and Leader-Williams N. 2007. Can bans stimulate wildlife trade? Nature 447(5144):529-530.

Rosa IL, Oliveira TPR, Castro ALC, de Souza Moraes LE, Xavier JHA, Nottingham MC, Dias TL, Bruto-Costa LV, Araujo ME, Birolo AB, Mai ACG, and Monteiro-Neto C. 2007. Population characteristics, space use and habitat associations of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae). Neotropical Ichthyology 5:405-414.

Samoilys MA, Martin-Smith KM, Giles BG, Cabrera B, Anticamara JA, Brunio EO, and Vincent ACJ. 2007. Effectiveness of five small Philippines’ coral reef reserves for fish populations depends on site-specific factors, particularly enforcement history. Biological Conservation 136(4):584-601.

Stölting KN and Wilson AB. 2007. Male pregnancy in seahorses and pipefish: beyond the mammalian model. BioEssays 29(9):884-896.

Teske PR, Hamilton H, Matthee CA, and Barker NP. 2007. Signatures of seaway closures and founder dispersal in the phylogeny of a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7(1):138.

Teske PR, Lockyear JF, Hecht T, and Kaiser H. 2007. Does the endangered Knysna seahorse, Hippocampus capensis, have a preference for aquatic vegetation type, cover or height? African Zoology 42(1):23-30.

Thangaraj M and Lipton AP. 2007. Occurrence of the Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei Bleeker 1854 from the Palk Bay coast of south-eastern India. Journal of Fish Biology 70(1):310-312.

Uyarra MC and Cote IM. 2007. The quest for cryptic creatures: Impacts of species-focused recreational diving on corals. Biological Conservation 136(1):77-84.

Van Look KJW, Dzyuba B, Cliffe A, Koldewey HJ, and Holt WV. 2007. Dimorphic sperm and the unlikely route to fertilisation in the yellow seahorse. Journal of Experimental Biology 210(3):432-437.

Vincent ACJ, Meeuwig J, Pajaro M, and Perante N. 2007. Characterizing a small-scale, data-poor, artisanal fishery: Seahorses in the central Philippines. Fisheries Research 86(2-3):207-215.

Vorwerk PD, Froneman PW, and Paterson AW. 2007. Recovery of the critically endangered river pipefish, Syngnathus watermeyeri, in the Kariega Estuary, Eastern Cape province. South African Journal of Science 103:199-201.

Wilson AB and Martin-Smith KM. 2007. Genetic monogamy despite social promiscuity in the pot-bellied seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis). Molecular Ecology 16(11):2345-2352.

Wright KA, Woods CMC, Gray BE, and Lokman PM. 2007. Recovery from acute, chronic and transport stress in the pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Journal of Fish Biology 70(5):1447-1457.

2006

Adulyanukosol K and Poovachiranon S. 2006. Dugong (Dugong dugon) and seagrass in Thailand present status and future challenges. Presentation for the Phuket Marine Biological Center and the Department of Marine and Coastal Resources:17pp.

Ah-King M, Elofsson H, Kvarnemo C, Rosenqvist G, and Berglund A. 2006. Why is there no sperm competition in a pipefish with externally brooding males? Insights from sperm activation and morphology. Journal of Fish Biology 68(3):958-962.

Alves RRN and Rosa IL. 2006. From cnidarians to mammals: The use of animals as remedies in fishing communities in NE Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 107(2):259-276.

**Arcos-Pulido MDP. 2006. Revision de la situacion actual de las especies de caballito de mar (Hippocampus spp.) que habit en Colombia, instrumentos de gestion y accions prioritarias de conservacion/Revision of the present situation of seahorse species (Hippocampus spp.) in Colombia: Management instruments and priority actions for conservation. Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible (Bogota D.C.) /Environment & Sustainable Development (Colombia), Fundacion Universitaria Iberoamericana:110pp.

Berglund A, Rosenqvist G, and Robinson-Wolrath S. 2006. Food or sex – males and females in a sex role reversed pipefish have different interests. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 60(2):281-287.

Carpenter AI. 2006. Conservation convention adoption provides limited conservation benefits: The Mediterranean Green turtle as a case study. Nature Conservation 14:91-96.

Cheung SM and Dudgeon D. 2006. Quantifying the Asian turtle crisis- market surveys in southern China. Aquatic Conservation 16(7):751-770.

Choo CK and Liew HC. 2006. Morphological development and allometric growth patterns in the juvenile seahorse Hippocampus kuda Bleeker. Journal of Fish Biology 69(2):426-445.

**CITES. 2006. Annual Reports Guidelines for the Preparation and Submission of CITES Annual Reports.

Cui X, Li W, Zhang K, Cai H, and Wu H. 2006. Determination of hypoxanthine and xanthine in Syngnathus by HPLC. Chinese Journal of Marine Drugs/Zhongguo Haiyang Yaowu 25(2):58-62.

Curtis JMR. 2006. Visible implant elastomer (VIE) tag colour determination, tag visibility and tag loss: potential sources of error for mark-recapture studies. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 26(2):327-337.

Curtis JMR. 2006. A case of mistaken identity: skin filaments are unreliable for identifying Hippocampus guttulatus and Hippocampus hippocampus. Journal of Fish Biology 69:1855-1859.

Curtis JMR and Vincent ACJ. 2006. Life history of an unusual marine fish: survival, growth and movement patterns of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829. Journal of Fish Biology 68(3):707-733.

Do HH, Grønkjær P, and Simonsen V. 2006. Otolith morphology, microstructure and ageing in the hedgehog seahorse, Hippocampus spinosissimus (Weber, 1913). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22(2):153-159.

Dzyuba B, Van Look KJ, Cliffe A, Koldewey HJ, and Holt WV. 2006. Effect of parental age and associated size on fecundity, growth and survival in the yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda. The Journal of Experimental Biology 209(16):3055-3061.

Felício AKC, Rosa IL, Souto A, and Freitas RHA. 2006. Feeding behavior of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933. Journal of Ethology 24(3):219-225.

Forsgren KL and Lowe CG. 2006. The life history of weedy seadragons, Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Teleostei : Syngnathidae). Marine and Freshwater Research 57(3):313-322.

Franco A, Franzoi P, Malavasi S, Riccato F, and Torricelli P. 2006. Fish assemblages in different shallow water habitats of the Venice Lagoon. Hydrobiologia 555:159-174.

Giles BG, Ky TS, Hoang DH, and Vincent ACJ. 2006. The catch and trade of seahorses in Vietnam. Biodiversity and Conservation 15(8):2497-2513

Grey M, Blais A, Hunt B, and Vincent ACJ. 2006. The USA’s international trade in fish leather, from a conservation perspective. Environmental Conservation 33:100-108

Grey M and Vincent ACJ. 2006. Extent and possible conservation implications of fish use for research, testing and education in North America. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 16:569-578.

Harlin-Cognato A, Hoffman EA, and Jones AG. 2006. Gene cooption without duplication during the evolution of a male-pregnancy gene in pipefish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(51):19407-19412.

**Harris. 2006. An abundance of pipefish. British Birds 99(9):500-501.

Hindell JS. 2006. Assessing the trophic link between seagrass habitats and piscivorous fishes. Marine and Freshwater Research 57(1):121-131.

Hoffman EA, Mobley KB, and Jones AG. 2006. Male pregnancy and the evolution of body segmentation in seahorses and pipefishes. Evolution 60(2):404-410.

Hong-yi Y, Wei-Dong Y, Wen Z, Teng L, Zhang G, and Cheng G. 2006. The experimental study of isolate and checkup of pathogenic bacteria and its drug sensitive to antibiotics in seahorse(Hippocampus kelloggi). Journal of Dalian Fisheries University 21(2):131-133.

Hunt B and Vincent ACJ. 2006. Scale and sustainability of marine bioprospecting for pharmaceuticals. Ambio 35(2):57-64.

Job S, Buu D, and Vincent ACJ. 2006. Growth and survival of the Tiger Tail Seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 37(3):322-327.

Keivany Y and Nelson JS. 2006. Interrelationships of Gasterosteiformes (Actinopterygii, Percomorpha). Journal of Ichthyology 46:84-96.

Kim S, Oh J, and Lee Y. 2006. Description of the post larva of Star Pipefish, Halicampus punctatus (Syngnathidae, Gasterosteiformes) first found in the Southwestern East Sea, Korea. Ocean Science Journal 41(4):201-205.

Kirby RR, Johns DG, and Lindley JA. 2006. Fathers in hot water: rising sea temperatures and a Northeastern Atlantic pipefish baby boom. Biology Letters 2(4):597-600.

**Knop, D. 2006. The pygmy sea horse Hippocampus denise. Koralle 7 2 Nr 38:49-52.

Laksanawimol P, Damrongphol P, and Kruatrachue M. 2006. Alteration of the brood pouch morphology during gestation of male seahorses, Hippocampus kuda. Marine and Freshwater Research 57:497-502.

Lin Q, Lu J, Gao Y, Shen L, Cai J, and Luo J. 2006. The effect of temperature on gonad, embryonic development and survival rate of juvenile seahorses, Hippocampus kuda Bleeker. Aquaculture 254(1-4):701-713.

Lockyear JF, Hecht T, Kaiser H, and Teske PR. 2006. The distribution and abundance of the endangered Knysna seahorse Hippocampus capensis (Pisces: Syngnathidae) in South African estuaries. African Journal of Aquatic Science 31(2):275-283.

Mai ACG and Loebmann D. 2006. Size and number of newborn juveniles in wild Hippocampus reidi broods. Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences 4(2):154-157.

Martin-Smith K. 2006. Priorities for Syngnathid research. Project Seahorse Technical Report for UBC Fisheries:13pp.

Martin-Smith K and Vincent ACJ. 2006. Exploitation and trade of Australian seahorses, pipehorses, sea dragons and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae). Oryx 40:141-151.

Meeuwig JJ, Hoang DH, Kyb TS, Joba SD, and Vincent ACJ. 2006. Quantifying non-target seahorse fisheries in central Vietnam. Fisheries Research 81(2-3):149-157.

Meijer A, Roholl PJM, Ossewaarde JM, Jones  B, and Nowak BF. 2006. Molecular evidence for association of Chlamydiales bacteria with epitheliocystis in leafy seadragon (Phycodurus eques), silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus), and barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72(1):284-290.

Monteiro NM, Berglund A, Vieira MN, and Almada VC. 2006. Reproductive migrations of the sex role reversed pipefish Nerophis lumbriciformis (Pisces; Syngnathidae). Journal of Fish Biology 69(1):66-74.

Morgan SK and Lourie SA. 2006. Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus comes Cantor 1850 (Syngnathidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 75:311-313.

Oconer EP, Pascual CB, Herrera AA, Sakamoto T, and Wetzel JT. 2006. Chemical components of the pouch fluid in the seahorse, Hippocampus barbouri Jordan & Richardson 1908 and their uptake in embryos. Asia Life Sciences 15(1):73-84.

Oliva-Paterna FJ, Andreu A, Miñano PA, Verdiell D, Egea A, Maya AD, Ruiz-Navarro A, Garcia-Alonso J, and Fernandez-Delgado C, and Torralva M. 2006. Y-O-Y fish species richness in the littoral shallows of the meso-saline coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22(3):235-237.

Ortega-Salas AA and Reyes-Bustamante H. 2006. Fecundity, survival, and growth of the seahorse Hippocampus ingens (Pisces : Syngnathidae) under semi-controlled conditions. Revista De Biologia Tropical 54(4):1099-1102.

Perez-Ruzafa A, Garcia-Charton JA, Barcala E, and Marcos C. 2006. Changes in benthic fish assemblages as a consequence of coastal works in a coastal lagoon: The Mar Menor (Spain, Western Mediterranean). Marine Pollution Bulletin 53(1-4):107-120.

Pihl L, Baden SP, Kautsky N, Rönnback P, Söderqvist T, Troell M, and Wennhage H. 2006. Shift in fish assemblage structure due to loss of seagrass Zostera marina habitats in Sweden. Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science 67(1-2):123-132.

**Porteiro, F. M., et al. 2006. Fishes of the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge Collected During the MAR-ECO Cruise in June/July 2004. Report submitted to the American Geophysical Union.

Ripley JL and Foran CM. 2006. Differential parental nutrient allocation in two congeneric pipefish species (Syngnathidae : Syngnathus spp.). Journal of Experimental Biology 209(6):1112-1121.

Robinson-Wolrath SI. 2006. Video playback versus live stimuli for assessing mate choice in a pipefish. Environmental Biology of Fishes 75(4):409-414.

Rosa IL, Sampaio CLS, and Barros AT. 2006. Collaborative monitoring of the ornamental trade of seahorses and pipefishes (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in Brazil: Bahia State as a case study. Neotropical Icthyology 4(2):247-252.

Rozas LP and Minello TJ. 2006. Nekton use of Vallisneria americana Michx. (wild celery) beds and adjacent habitats in coastal Louisiana. Estuaries and Coasts 29(2):297-310.

Sanchez-Camara J, Booth DJ, Murdoch J, Watts D, and Turon X. 2006. Density, habitat use and behaviour of the weedy seadragon Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Teleostei : Syngnathidae) around Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 57(7):737-745.

Schwarz A, Morrison M,  Hawes I, and Halliday J. 2006. Physical and biological characteristics of a rare marine habitat: sub-tidal seagrass beds of offshore islands. Science for Conservation (Wellington) 269:1-39.

Sheng J, Lin Q, Chen Q, Gao Y, Shen L, and Lu J. 2006. Effects of food, temperature and light intensity on the feeding behavior of three-spot juvenile seahorses, Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach. Aquaculture 256(1-4):596-607.

Silva K, Monteiro NM, Almada VC, and Vieira MN. 2006. Early life history of Syngnathus abaster. Journal of Fish Biology 68(1):80-86.

Silva K, Monteiro NM, Almada VC, and Vieira MN. 2006. Development and early life history behaviour of aquarium reared Syngnathus acus (Pisces: Syngnathidae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 86(6):1469-1472.

Silva K, Monteiro NM, Almada VC, and Vieira MN. 2006. Reproductive behaviour of the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster (Pisces; Syngnathidae). Journal of Fish Biology 69(6):1860-1869.

Thangaraj M, Lipton  AP, and Victor ACC. 2006. Onset of sexual maturity in captive-reared endangered Indian seahorse, Hippocampus kuda. Current Science 91(12):1714-1716.

Trang N. 2006. Growth and survival of the Tiger Tail Seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Journal Of The World Aquaculture Society 37:322-327.

Tuckey TD and Dehaven M. 2006. Fish assemblages found in tidal-creek and seagrass habitats in the Suwannee River estuary. Fishery Bulletin (Seattle) 104(1):102-117.

Tull DM. 2006. China’s engagement in Africa: scope, significance and consequences. The Journal of Modern African Studies 44(03):459-479.

**van Uiford JQ. 2006. The care of young by the male. Aquarium 76(4):132-135.

Verdiell-Cubedo D, Oliva-Paterna FJ, and Torralva M. 2006. Length-weight relationships for 22 fish species of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (western Mediterranean Sea). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22(4):293-294.

Vincent ACJ. 2006. Live food and non-food fisheries on coral reefs, and their potential management. Conservation Biology Series (Cambridge) 13:183-236.

**Vincent ACJ and Koldewy HJ. 2006. An uncertain future for seahorse aquaculture in conservation and economic contexts. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines:71-84.

Wang Y. 2006. A new record on the fish fauna in Shanghai – Hippocampus japonicus Kaup. Marine Fisheries 28(1):87-88.

**Weidner T and Seidel I. 2006. Pipefishes of freshwater and brackish water. Amazonas 5:14-22.

Widemo MS. 2006. Male but not female pipefish copy mate choice. Behavioral Ecology 17(2):255-259.

Wilson AB. 2006. Genetic signature of recent glaciation on populations of a near-shore marine fish species (Syngnathus leptorhynchus). Molecular Ecology 15(7):1857-1871.

Wilson AB. 2006. Interspecies mating in sympatric species of Syngnathus pipefish. Molecular Ecology 15:809-824.

Wilson Z, Carter CG, and Purser GJ. 2006. Nitrogen budgets for juvenile big-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis fed Artemia, mysids or pelleted feeds. Aquaculture 255(1-4):233-241.

Yang H. 2006. The experimental study of isolate and checkup of pathogenic bacteria and its drug sensitive to antibiotics in seahorse(Hippocampus kelloggi). Journal of Balian Fisheries University 21(2):131-133.

York PH, Booth DJ, Glasby TM, and Pease BC. 2006. Fish assemblages in habitats dominated by Caulerpa taxifolia and native seagrasses in south-eastern Australia. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 312:223-234.

2005

Araujo M and Alburquerque-Filho AC. 2005. On the biology of the main marine ornamental fish species in Brazil: a bibliographic an documental review. Boletim tecnico cientifico do CEPENE 13(1):109-157.

Bartolino V. 2005. Skeletal organization of caudal fin in Syngnathus abaster (Osteichthyes, Syngnathidae). International Journal of Morphology 23:305-308.

Baum JK and Vincent ACJ. 2005. Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America. Environmental Conservation 32(4):305-319.

Berglund A, Widemo MS, and Rosenqvist G. 2005. Sex-role reversal revisited: choosy females and ornamented, competitive males in a pipefish. Behavioral Ecology 16(3):649-655.

Blundell AG and Masica MB. 2005. Discrepancies in reported levels of international wildlife trade. Conservation Biology 19(6):2020-2025.

Bolland J and Boettcher A. 2005. Population structure and reproductive characteristics of the gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli, in Mobile Bay, Alabama. Estuaries 28(6):957-965.

Braicovich PE, Gonzalez RA, and Tanzola RD. 2005. First record of Corynosoma australe (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae) parasitizing seahorse, Hippocampus sp (Pisces, Syngnathidae) in Patagonia (Argentina). Acta Parasitologica 50(2):145-149.

Bruckner AW. 2005. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean. Revista de Biología Tropical:1-9.

Bruckner AW. 2005. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean. Revista de Biología Tropical 53 Suppl 1:127-137.

Carvalho Nottingham M, Barreto LM, De Araujo ME, Monteiro-Neto C, De Andrade Cunha FE, De Lucena Rosa IM, and De Alencar CAG. 2005. Marine ornamental fish exploitation in Ceara State, Brazil: harvest, wholesalers management and exportation. Boletim tecnico cientifico do CEPENE 13(1):53-73.

Choo CK and Liew HC. 2005. Exploitation and trade in seahorses in peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 57(1):57-66.

Collette BB. 2005. Is the east-west division of haplotypes of the three-spot seahorse along Wallace’s Line novel among marine organisms? Journal of Biogeography 32(7):1286.

Curtis JMR and Vincent ACJ. 2005. Distribution of sympatric seahorse species along a gradient of habitat complexity in a seagrass-dominated community. Marine Ecology Progress Series 291:81-91.

Deng G, Lu J, and Lin Q. 2005. Effects of water-bloom on environmental factors in breeding water for juvenile seahorse, Hippocamppus [Hippocampus] kuda Bleeker. Journal of Fishery Sciences of China 12(4):477-482.

Denoel M, Hector M, and Poncin P. 2005. Courtship behavior in the alpine newt Triturus alpestris at two different densities of males. Herpetologica 61(4):373-379.

Dhanya S, Rajagopal S, and Ajmal S. 2005. Embryonic development in alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785). Current Science (Bangalore) 88(1):178-181.

Dobson A. 2005. Monitoring global rates of biodiversity change: challenges that arise in meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 2010 goals. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 360(1454):229-241.

Dodt N. 2005. Fisheries Long Term Monitoring Program: Syngnathids in the East Coast Trawl Fishery: A review and trawl survey. Report submitted to the Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries:20pp.

Evers H. 2005. A blue-red dream: the unusual mating behaviour of a pipe fish. Amazonas 2:54-59.

Forsgren KL. 2005. Early life history, growth, and reproduction of captive weedy sea dragons, Phyllopteryx taeniolatus. Master’s thesis submitted to the California State University, Long Beach:68pp.

Foster SJ and Vincent ACJ. 2005. Enhancing sustainability of the international trade in seahorses with a single minimum size limit. Conservation Biology 19(4):1044-1050.

Friedman M and Johnson GD. 2005. A new species of Mene (Perciformes: Menidae) from the Paleocene of South America, with notes on paleoenvironment and a brief review of menid fishes. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25(4):770-783.

Gasparini JL, Floeter SR, Ferreira CEL, and Sazima I. 2005. Marine ornamental trade in Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation 14(12):2883-2899.

Grey M, Blais A, and Vincent ACJ. 2005. Magnitude and trends of marine fish curio imports to the USA. Oryx 39.(4):413-420.

Job S. 2005. Integrating marine conservation and sustainable development: community-based aquaculture of marine aquarium fish. Live Reef Fish Information Bulletin(13):24-29.

Jones AG, Rosenqvist G, Berglund A, and Avise JC. 2005. The measurement of sexual selection using Bateman’s principles: an experimental test in the sex-role-reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle. Integrative and Comparative Biology 45(5):874-884.

Jones MV and West RJ. 2005. Spatial and temporal variability of seagrass fishes in intermittently closed and open coastal lakes in southeastern Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 64(2-3):277-288.

Kendrick AJ and Hyndes GA. 2005. Variations in the dietary compositions of morphologically diverse syngnathid fishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 72(4):415-427.

Koldewey H. 2005. Seahorses take to the world stage. Live Reef Fish Information Bulletin(13):33-34.

Koldewey H. 2005. Seahorse husbandry in public aquariums: 2005 Manual, with chapters contributed by members of the Syngnathid discussion group. Zoological Society of London. London, UK:137pp.

Larson HK. 2005. Threatened fishes of the Northern Territory. Northern Territory Naturalist 18:14-20.

Lourie SA. 2005. Phylogeography of Southeast Asian seahorses in a conservation context. Dissertation Abstracts International Part B: Science and Engineering 66(1):75.

Lourie SA, Green DM, and Vincent ACJ. 2005. Dispersal, habitat differences, and comparative phylogeography of Southeast Asian seahorses (Syngnathidae: Hippocampus). Molecular Ecology 14:1073-1094.

Lyons DO and Dunne JJ. 2005. Reproductive ecology and operational sex ratio of the worm pipefish (Nerophis lumbriciformis) in Irish waters. Biology and the Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 105B:9-14.

Maes J, Stevens M, and Ollevier F. 2005. The composition and community structure of the ichthyofauna of the upper Scheldt estuary: synthesis of a 10-year data collection (1991-2001). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 21(2):86-93.

Mariusz RS and Krzysztof ES. 2005. Spread of alien (non-indigenous) fish species Neogobius melanostomus in the Gulf of Gdansk (south Baltic). Biological Invasions 7(2):157-164.

Martin-Smith KM and Vincent ACJ. 2005. Seahorse declines in the Derwent estuary, Tasmania in the absence of fishing pressure. Biological Conservation 123(4):533-545.

Melamed P, Xue Y, Poon JFED, Wu Q, Xie H, Yeo J, Foo TWJF, Chua HK. 2005. The male seahorse synthesizes and secretes a novel C-type lectin into the bood pouch during early pregnancy. FEBS Journal 272:1221-1235.

Monteiro NM, Almada VC, and Vieira MN. 2005. Implications of different brood pouch structures in syngnathid reproduction. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 85(5):1235-1241.

Monteiro NM, Almada VC, and Vieira MN. 2005. Brief Communications: Temporal patterns of breeding and recruitment in Nerophis lumbriciformis(Pisces; Syngnathidae) related to seawater temperatures. Journal of Fish Biology 67(5):1475-1480.

Monteiro NM, Quinteira SM, Silva K, Almada VC, and Vieira MN.2005. Diet preference reflects the ontogenetic shift in microhabitat use in Lipophrys pholis. Journal of Fish Biology 67(1):102-113.

Monteiro NM, Vieira MN, and Almada VC . 2005. Homing behaviour and individual identification of the pipefish Nerophis lumbriciformis (Pisces; Syngnathidae): a true intertidal resident? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 63(1-2):93-99.

Multiple unknown authors. 2005. Special section: Implementation and management of marine protected areas. Conservation Biology 16(6):1699-1778.

**Oudegeest, T. and M. Laterveer. 2005. Project Hica (Nov 2003-Jan 2005): Management report on the conservation of a marine fish species. Rotterdam, Rotterdam Zoo:28.

Reynolds JD, Dulvy NK, Goodwin NB, and Hutchings JA. 2005. Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 53(6).

Rios-Cardenas O. 2005. Patterns of parental investment and sexual selection in teleost fishes: Do they support Bateman’s Principles? Integrative and Comparative Biology 45(5):885-894.

Roberts DE and Murray SN. 2005. Assessment of Syngnathid by-catch associated with the weed harvester in Tuggerah Lakes estuary. Report to Wyong Shire Council.,Bioanalysis: Marine, Estuarine & Freshwater Ecology, Narara.

Roberts DE and Murray SN. 2005. Spatial patterns of Syngnathids in the Tuggerah Lakes estuary: potential impacts associated with the weed harvester. Report to Wyong Shire Council., Bioanalysis: Marine, Estuarine & Freshwater Ecology, Narara.

Romanenko VD, Afanasyev SA, Vasenko OG. 2005. Review of status of fisheries and Aquaculture in the Dnipro region in relation to biodiversity conservation. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada Supp. 6:42-53.

Rosa IM, Alves RR, Bonifácio KM, Mourão JS, Osório FM, Oliveira TP, and Nottingham MC. 2005. Fishers knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 1:12-26.

Rosa IM, Teixeira AB, De Amorim Xavier JH, and Soares  Cortez C. 2005. Populational data on seahorses Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933 (Teleostei; Syngnathidae) caught for aquarium trade in Northeast Brazil. Boletim Tecnico Cientifico do CEPENE 13(1):25-38.

Miller RR, Minckley WL, and Norris SM. 2005. Freshwater fishes of Mexico. Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press.

Salin KR, Yohannan TM, and Mohanakumarannair C. 2005. Fisheries and trade of seahorses, Hippocampus spp., in southern India. Fisheries Management and Ecology 12(4):269-273.

Sanchez-Camara J, Booth DJ, and Turon X. 2005. Reproductive cycle and growth of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus. Journal of Fish Biology 67(1):133-148.

Tang-Martinez Z and Ryder TB. 2005. The Problem with Paradigms: Bateman’s Worldview as a Case Study. Integrative and Comparative Biology 45(5):821-830.

Teske PR, Hamilton H, Palsboll PJ, Choo CK, Gabr H, Lourie SA, Santos M, Sreepada A, Cherry MI, and Matthee CA. 2005. Molecular evidence for long-distance colonization in an Indo-Pacific seahorse lineage. Marine Ecology Progress Series 286:249-260.

Tweddle G. 2005. Population dynamics of selected ichthyofaunal components in the temperate, temporarily open/closed Kasouga Estuary, South Africa. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Rhodes University: 202pp.

Ueda N, Partridge C, Bolland J, Hemming J, Sherman T, and Boettcher A. 2005. Effects of an environmental estrogen on male gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann and Kendall), a male brooding teleost. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 74:1207-1212.

Vandendriessche S, Messiaen M, Vincx M, and Degraer S. 2005. Juvenile Hippocampus guttulatus from a neuston tow at the French-Belgian border. Belgian Journal of Zoology 135(1):101-102.

Velling K. 2005. Hippocampus histrix. The thorny sea horse. Koralle 35:47-50.

Vincent ACJ, Evans KL, and Marsden AD. 2005. Home range behaviour of the monogomous Australian seahorse Hippocampus whitei. Environmental Biology of Fishes 72(1):1-12.

Whitfield AK. 2005. Preliminary documentation and assessment of fish diversity in sub-Saharan African estuaries. African Journal of Marine Science:37-41.

WHO. 2005. National policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicine: Report of WHO global survey. Geneva, World Health Organization:168pp..

Woods CMC. 2005. Reproductive output of male seahorses, Hippocampus abdominalis, from Wellington Harbour, New Zealand: implications for conservation. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39(4):881-888.

Woods CMC. 2005. Growth of cultured seahorses (Hippocampus abdominalis) in relation to feed ration. Aquaculture International 13(4):305-314.

Woods CMC. 2005. Evaluation of VI-alpha and PIT-tagging of the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Aquaculture International 13(3):175-186.

Woods CMC and James PJ. 2005. Evaluation of passive integrated transponder tags for individually identifying the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus (Valenciennes). Aquaculture Research 36(7):730-732.

Xu D, Xie J, Mei X, and Xu S. 2005. Advance in the research of Syngnathidae in China. Chinese Journal of Marine drugs/Zhongguo Haiyang Yaowu 24(2):51-56.

Yüksek A, Okuş E, and Yilmaz N. 2005. Rehabilitation studies and recovery of a once lifeless estuary: the Golden Horn. Water Science & Technology 51(11):27-35.

Zander CD. 2005. On the prey of two pipefish, Syngnathus typhle and Nerophis ophidion (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) from the Baltic Sea, in combination with the transfer of parasites. Zeitschrift fuer Fischkunde 7(2):155-159.

2004

**Anonymous (2004). “New seahorse trade regulations.” Fisheries 29(7): 7-+.

Apurado JL. and Valles DAP. 2004. Notes on pipefishes (Syngnathidae) from two rivers in Panay and Mindanao, Philippines. Philippine Scientist 41:268-276.

Baillie JEM, Hilton-Taylor B, and Stuart N. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of threatened speciesTM: a global species assessment. IUCN, Gland i-xxiii:1-191.

**Balasubramanian R, et al. 2004. Distribution of seahorses in Coromandal coast. Proceedings of the National Seminar on New Frontiers in MarineBioscience Research 2004:527-533.

Boudouresque CF. 2004. Marine biodiversity in the mediterranean: status of species, populations and communities. Travaux scientifiques du Parc national de Port-Cros 20:97-146.

Casey SP, Hall HJ, Stanley HF, and Vincent ACJ. 2004. The origin and evolution of seahorses (genus Hippocampus): A phylogenetic study using the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30(2):261-272.

Choo Chee K and Liew Hock C. 2004. A record of seahorse species (family Syngnathidae) in East Malaysia, with notes on their conservation. Malayan Nature Journal 56(4):409-420.

CITES. 2004. Notification to the Parties No. 2004/033. Concerning Trade in Seahorses. Implementation of Decision 12.54. Geneva:2pp.

**CITES. 2004. Review of Significant Trade in Specimens of Appendix-II Species.

Du Q, Chen Z, Zhu C, and Lin Y. 2004. Study on artificial propagation and breeding of Hippocampus kuda. Journal of Oceanography In Taiwan 2:186-191

Foster SJ and Vincent ACJ. 2004. Life history and ecology of seahorses: implications for conservation and management. Journal of Fish Biology 64(6):1-61.

Frias-Torres S. 2004. Notes on aquarium brood release and feeding of the opossum pipefish, Microphis brachyurus lineatus. Gulf and Caribbean Research 16:73-75.

Fricke R. 2004. Review of the pipefishes and seahorses (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) of New Calendonia, with descriptions of five new species. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie A (Biologie) 668:1-61.

Garcia ML and Cuello MV. 2004. Occurrence of Syngnathus folletti (Gasterosteiformes, Syngnathidae) in mixohaline environments in the coastal South Atlantic (36 degrees). Biogeographica (Paris) 80(1-4):13-25.

Garcia-Hernandez V and Ordonez-Lopez U. 2004. Structure of the community of juvenile fish in the Lagoon Yalahau, Quntana Roo (Rainy Season). Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 55:1020-1022.

Goffredo S, Piccinetti C, and Zaccanti F. 2004. Volunteers in marine conservation monitoring: a study of the distribution of seahorses carried out in collaboration with recreational scuba divers. Conservation Biology 18(6):1492-1503.

Gokoglu M, Bodur T, and Kaya Y. 2004. First records of Hippocampus fuscus and Syngnathus rostellatus (Osteichthyes: Syngnathidae) from the Anatolian coast (Mediterranean Sea). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84(5):1093-1094.

Jones AG. 2004. Male pregnancy and the formation of seahorse species. Biologist 51(4):216-221.

Kvarnemo C and Simmons LW. 2004. Testes investment and spawning mode in pipefishes and seahorses (Syngnathidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 83(3):369-376.

Kwak SN, Huh S, and Klumpp DW. 2004. Partitioning of food resources among Sillago japonica, Ditremma temmincki, Tridentiger trigonocephalus, Hippocampus japonicus and Petroscirtes breviceps in an eelgrass, Zostera marina, bed. Environmental Biology of Fishes 71(4):353-364.

Longshaw M, Green MJ, and Feist SW. 2004. Histopathology of parasitic infections in greater pipefish, Syngnathus acus L., from an estuary in the UK. Journal of Fish Diseases 27(4):245-248.

Lourie SA. 2004. Phylogeography of Southeast Asian Seahorses in a Conservation Context. Doctoral thesis submitted to McGill University:430pp.

Lourie SA, Foster SJ, Cooper EWT, and Vincent ACJ. 2004. A Guide to the Identification of Seahorses. Washington D.C., University of British Columbia and World Wildlife Fund:120pp.

Lourie SA and Vincent ACJ. 2004. A marine fish follows Wallace’s Line: the phylogeography of the three-spot seahorse (Hippocampus trimaculatus, Syngnathidae, Teleostei) in Southeast Asia. Journal of Biogeography 31(12):1975-1985.

Lourie SA and Vincent ACJ. 2004. Using biogeography to help set priorities in marine conservation. Conservation Biology 18(4):1004-1020.

Lourie SA and Vincent ACJ. 2004. A marine fish follows Wallace’s Line: the phylogeography of the three-spot seahorse (Hippocampus trimaculatus, Syngnathidae, Teleostei) in Southeast Asia. Journal of Biogeography 31:1975-1985.

**Luzzatto, D. C. and G. L. M. Piacentino. 2004. Caballitos de mar (Hippocampus spp.) en el Mar Argentino. Congreso Nacional de la Biodiversidad, Escobar, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Marsdea D. 2004. Synchrony, asynchrony, and temporally random mating: a new method for analyzing breeding synchrony. Behavioral Ecology 15:699-700.

Martin-Smith KM, Samoilys MA, Meeuwig JJ, and Vincent ACJ. 2004. Collaborative development of management options for an artisanal fishery for seahorses in the central Philippines. Ocean & Coastal Management 47(3-4):165-193.

Mazzi D. 2004. Parasites make male pipefish careless. Journal of Environmental Biology 17:519-527.

McPherson JM and Vincent ACJ. 2004. Assessing East African trade in seahorse species as a basis for conservation under international controls. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 14(5):521-538.

Miranda-Marure ME and Martinez-Perez JA. 2004. Reproductive biology of the opossum pipefish, Microphis brachyurus lineatus in Tecolutla Estuary, Veracruz, Mexico. Gulf and Caribbean Research 16:101-108.

Moreau MA and Vincent ACJ. 2004. Social structure and space use in a wild population of the Australian short-headed seahorse Hippocampus breviceps Peters, 1869. Marine and Freshwater Research 55(3):231-239.

Pajaro MG, Meeuwig JJ, Giles BG, and Vincent ACJ . 2004. Biology, fishery and trade of sea moths (Pisces: Pegasidae) in the central Philippines. Oryx 38: 432-438.

Partridge C, Cazalas C, Rozelle J, Hemming J, and Boettcher A. 2004. Small-scale captive breeding of a euryhaline pipefish. World Aquaculture 35(3):51-54.

Piacentino GLM and Luzzatto DC. 2004. Hippocampus patagonicus sp. nov., nuevo caballito de mar para la Argentina (Pisces, Syngnathiformes). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales 6(2):339-349.

Poortenaar CW, Woods CMC, James PJ, Giambartolomei FM, and Lokman PM. 2004. Reproductive biology of female big-bellied seahorses. Journal of Fish Biology 64(3):717-725.

**Salin K, et al. 2004. The fishery, trade and conservation of seahorses along the Indian coast. Proceedings of the National Seminar on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research:513-526

Simpson SD, Meekan MG, McCauley RD, and Jeffs A. 2004. Attraction of settlement-stage coral reef fishes to reef noise. Marine Ecology Progress Series 276:263-268.

Tendencia E. 2004. The first report of Vibrio harveyi infection in the seahorse Hippocampus kuda Bleekers 1852 in the Philippines. Aquaculture Research 35:1292-1294.

Teske PR, Cherry MI, and Matthee CA. 2004. The evolutionary history of seahorses (Syngnathidae: Hippocampus): Molecular data suggest a West Pacific origin and two invasions of the Atlantic Ocean. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30(2):273-286.

Thangaraj M and Lipton AP. 2004. Species-specific proteins in closely-related seahorses. Current Science (Bangalore) 86(12):1645-1647.

**UNEP-WCMC (2004). “A Guide to Interpreting Outputs from the CITES Trade Database.”

**UNEP-WCMC (2004). “Trade in seahorses – Implementation of Decision 12.54.” Notifications to the parties.

Vasquez-Yeomans L, Quintal-Lizama C, and Pereira-Flota M. 2004. First record of Acentronura dendritica (Barbour, 1905) (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae) from Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science 75(1):127-129.

Vincent ACJ, Marsden AD, Evans KL, and Sadler LM. 2004. Temporal and spatial opportunities for polygamy in a monogamous seahorse, Hippocampus whitei. Behaviour 141:141-156.

Vizzini S and Mazzola A. 2004. The trophic structure of the pipefish community (Pisces: Syngnathidae) from a Western Mediterranean seagrass meadow based on stable isotope analysis. Estuaries 27(2):325-333.

Wells RJD and Rooker JR. 2004. Distribution, age, and growth of young-of-the-year greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) associated with pelagic Sargassum. Fishery Bulletin 102(3):545-554.

Wetzel JT and Wourms JP. 2004. Embryogenesis in the dwarf seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae (Syngnathidae). Gulf and Caribbean Research 16:27-35.

Willens S, Dunn JL, and Frasca S Jr. 2004. Fibrosarcoma of the brood pouch in an aquarium-reared lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(1):107–109.

Woods CMC and Martin-Smith KM. 2004. Visible implant fluorescent elastomer tagging of the big-bellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis. Fisheries Research (Amsterdam) 66(2-3):363-371.

**Zerunian, S. 2004. Fish of the inland waters of Italy. Quaderni di Conservazione della Natura 20(1-257).

2003

Allen, G. R. and M. Adrim. 2003. Coral reef fishes of Indonesia. Zoological Studies 42(1):1-72.

**Anonymous. 2003. The protection of Syngnathids in NSW waters. Syngntathid Discussion Paper submitted to the Port Stephens Fisheries Centre.

Baum, J. K., et al. 2003. Bycatch of lined seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) in a Gulf of Mexico shrimp trawl fishery. Fishery Bulletin 101:721-731.

Bell, E. M., et al. 2003. First field studies of an endangered South African seahorse, Hippocampus capensis. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67(1):35-46.

Bhattacharya, A. and S. K. Sarkar. 2003. Impact of overexploitation of shellfish: Northeastern coast of India. Ambio 32(1):70-75.

**Browne, R. 2003. Museums, Marine Naturalists and Fish Conservation. Seadragon Foundation Articles.

Carcupino, M., et al. 2003. Significance of the male brood pouch and egg chorion structure in the reproductive strategies of syngnathids. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10(2, pt. 1):113-118.

**Chew, K. K. 2003. Activities At The Natural Energy Laboratory Of Hawaii Authority. Aquaculture Magazine 29(1):70-76.

Choo, C. K. and H. C. Liew. 2003. Spatial distribution, substrate assemblages and size composition of sea horses (Family Syngnathidae) in the coastal waters of Penninsular Malaysia. Journal of Marine Biology Association U.K. 83:271-276.

Christiaens, L. C. 2003. First sighting of seahorse. CCA Ecological Journal 5:254.

CITES. 2003. Seahorses and other members of the family Syngnathidae (Decision 12.54). Universal minimum size limit for seahorses. Nineteenth Meeting of the Animals Committee:7pp.

Cohen, P. J. and D. A. Ritz. 2003. Role of kairomones in feeding interactions between seahorses and mysids. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 83(3):633-638.

Damerval, M., et al. 2003. On the breeding of the two european seahorses in aquarium: Hippocampus hippocampus (Linne, 1758) and Hippocampus ramulosus Leach, 1814. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de Normandie et des Amis du Museum du Havre 90(2):45-52.

Dias, T. L. and I. M. d. L. Rosa. 2003. Habitat preferences of a seahorse species, Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in Brazil. Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology 6(4):165-176.

Donia, M. and M. T. Hamann. 2003. Marine natural products and their potential applications as anti-infective agents. Lancet Infectious Diseases 3(6):338-348.

Dulvy, N. K., et al. 2003. Extinction vulnerability in marine populations. Fish and Fisheries 4:25-64.

**Gonzáles, R. and A. Gosztonyi (2003). Resultados preliminares de los estudios taxonómicos sobre el caballito de mar de la Bahía de San Antonio, Río Negro, Arg. Abstracts of the V Jornadas Nacionales de Ciencias del Mar, 8-12 December 2003, Mar del Plata, Argentina, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Pesquero and Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata.

Graham, N. A. J., et al. 2003. The effects of marine reserve protection on the trophic relationships of reef fishes on the Great Barrier Reef.8 Environmental Conservation 30(2):200-208.

Haefner, B. 2003. Drugs from the deep: marine natural products as drug candidates. Drug Discovery Today 8(12):536-544.

Hilomen-Garcia, G. V., et al. 2003. Tolerance of seahorse Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker) juveniles to various salinities. Journal of Applied Icthyology 19: 94-98.

Ignatius, B. and I. Jagadis. 2003. Growth and reproduction of tropical seahorse Hippocampus kuda in captivity. Indian Journal of Fisheries 50(3):369-372.

Jones, A. G., et al. 2003. Sympatric speciation as a consequence of male pregnancy in seahorses. PNAS Early Edition:1-6.

Kendrick, A. J. and G. A. Hyndes. 2003. Patterns in the abundance and size-distribution of syngnathid fishes among habitats in a seagrass-dominated marine environment. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 56:1-10.

Kuiter, R. H. 2003. A new pygmy seahorse (Pisces: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from Lord Howe Island. Records of the Australian Museum 55(1):113-116.

Kvarnemo, C., et al. 2003. The myth of the sperm cloud–or why is testes size not affected by spawning mode in seahorses and pipefishes. Journal of Fish Biology: Vol. 63 (suppl. 1):235.

Lourie, S. A. and J. E. Randall. 2003. A new pygmy seahorse, Hippocampus denise (Teleostei: Syngnathidae), from the Indo-Pacific. Zoological Studies 42:284-291.

**Lu, J., et al. 2003. Application of profitable microbe in healthy cultivation of Hippocampus kuda. Journal of Fishery Sciences of China/Zhongguo Shuichan Kexue 10(1):46-50.

Lyons, D. O. and J. J. Dunne. 2003. Reproductive costs to male and female worm pipefish. Journal of Fish Biology 62:767-773.

Marte, C. L. 2003. Larviculture of marine species in Southeast Asia: current research and industry prospects. Aquaculture 227(1-4): 293-304.

Martin-Smith, K. M., et al. 2003. Trade in pipehorses Solegnathus spp. for traditional medicine in Hong Kong. Traffic Bulletin 19(3):139-148.

Mazzoldi, C., et al. 2003. Yellow belly as honest signal of female quality in Knipowitschia panizzae (Gobiidae). Journal of Fish Biology 63(suppl. 1):237.

McIntyre, R. M. and J. A. Hutchings. 2003. Small-scale temporal and spatial variation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) life history. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60(9):1111-1121.

Meeuwig, J. J., et al. 2003. Fisher’s perceptions on the seahorse fishery in the central Philippines: Interactive approaches an an evaluation of results. Putting Fishers’ Knowledge to Work: Conference Proceedings August 27-30, 2003, Vancouver, BC, Fisheries Centre Research Reports 11(1):16pp.

Monteiro-Neto, C., et al. 2003. Analysis of the marine ornamental fish trade at Ceara State, northeast Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation 12(6):1287-1295.

Moran, S. M., et al. 2003. Role of physical disturbance in structuring fish assemblages in seagrass beds in Port Phillip Bay,Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 251:127-139.

**Mungkaje, A. J., et al. 2003. Incidental brood-hatching during capture in the Double-ended pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Pisces: Teleostei) with notes on fecundity and juvenile morphometrics. 5th New Guinea Biological Conference, 23rd-25th August, 2003, Goroka, E.H.P., Papua New Guinea.

Oconer, E. P., et al. 2003. Reproductive morphology and gonad development of the male seahorse, Hippocampus barbouri Jordan and Richardson 1908. Asia Life Sciences 12(1):27-38.

Oconer, E. P., et al. 2003. Immunolocalization of hormones involved in male gestation in the seahorse, Hippocampus barbouri Jordan and Richardson 1908. Philippine Agricultural Scientist 86(1):84-91.

Pagel, M. 2003. Polygamy and parenting. Nature 424:23-24.

**Piacentino, G. L. M. and D. C. Luzzatto (2003). Sobre la presencia del género Hippocampus, Rafinesque 1810 en el Atlántico Suroccidental. Abstracts of the V Jornadas Nacionales de Ciencias del Mar, 8-12 December 2003, Mar del Plata, Argentina, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Pesquero and Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata.

Power, M. and M. J. Attril. 2003. Long-term trends in the estuarine abundance of Nilsson’s pipefish (Syngnathus rostellatus Nilsson). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 57:325-333.

Riccato, F., et al. 2003. Population structure and reproduction of three pipefish species (Pisces, Syngnathidae) in a sea grass meadow of the Venice Lagoon. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10(2, pt. 1):138-145.

Rozelle, J. 2003. Use of gas chromotography in the elucidation or carbohydrates in the bodily fluid of the gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. 225th ACS National Meeting, New Orleans, LA, USA, March 23-27, 2003.

Rudershausen, P. J., et al. 2003. A survey of epifauna among macrophytes in a southwest Florida Estuary. Florida Scientist 66(3):168.

Sakabe, R. 2003. Abundance and feeding ecology of pipefish associated with seagrass habitat: Relationships between habitat structure, pipefish and motile epifauna. Thesis submitted to the University of Tasmania:59pp.

Sales, J. and G. P. J. Janssens. 2003. Nutrient requirements of ornamental fish. Aquatic Living Resources/Ressources Vivantes Aquatiques 16(6):533-540.

Salin, K. R. 2003. Reproductive biology and larval rearing of Hippocampus kuda, and the taxonomy of seahorses (hippocampus spp.) along the southern coast of India (TH 124). PhD thesis submitted to the Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai:234pp.

Shapawi, R. and G. J. Purser. 2003. The Value of enriched Artemia in supporting growth and survival of juvenile Pot-bellied Seahorses Hippocampus abdominalis. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34(4):533-541.

Takahasi, E., et al. 2003. Growth and reproduction of double-ended pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus, in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67:23-33.

Teske, P. R., et al. 2003. Population genetics of the endangered Knysna seahorse, Hippocampus capensis. Molecular Ecology 12:1703-1715.

UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 2003. From Ocean to Aquarium: the global trade in marine ornamental species. UNEP-Publications:64pp.

Vincent, A. C. J. and B. Giles. 2003. Correlates of reproductive success in a wild population of Hippocampus whitei. Journal of Fish Biology 63(2):344-355.

Wabnitz, C., et al. 2003. From Ocean to Aquarium. UNEP-WCMC:66pp.

**Warland, T. 2003. Seahorses: How to care for your seahorses in the marine aquarium: a stable environment for your seahorse. Port Lincoln, South Australia, South Australian Seahorse Marine Services.

**Wei, X., et al. 2003. Effects of foods on growth of young sea horses (Hippocampus). Acta scientiarum naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni/Zhongshan Daxue Xuebao 42(3):60-63.

Wells, R. J. D. and J. R. Rooker. 2003. Distribution and abundance of fishes associated with Sargassum mats in the NW Gulf of Mexico. Proceedings of the Fifty-Fourth Annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute(54):609-621.

Wilson, A. B., et al. 2003. The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns, and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae). Evolution 57:1374-1386.

Wong, J. M. and J. A. H. Benzie. 2003. The effects of temperature, Artemia enrichment, stocking density and light on the growth of juvenile seahorses, Hippocampus whitei (Bleeker, 1855), from Australia. Aquaculture 228(1-4):107-121.

**Woods, C. 2003. Food matters for seahorses.

Woods, C., et al. 2003. Dads going it alone – Fertility and seahorses. Seafood New Zealand 11(5):42-43.

Woods, C. C. and F. Valentino. 2003. Frozen mysids as an alternative to live Artemia in culturing seahorses Hippocampus abdominalis. Aquaculture Research 34(9):757-763.

Woods, C. M. 2003. Effect of stocking density and gender segregation in the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Aquaculture 218(1-4):167-176.

Woods, C. M. 2003. Effects of varying Artemia enrichment on growth and survival of juvenile seahorses, Hippocampus abdominalis. Aquaculture 220(1-4):537-548.

Woods, C. M. 2003. Growth and survival of juvenile seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis reared on live, frozen and artificial foods. Aquaculture 220(1-4):287-298.

Zhang, N., et al. 2003. Molecular profile of the unique species of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese seahorse (Hippocampus kuda Bleeker). FEBS Letters 550(1-3):124-134.

Earlier publications

Anon. (2002). Hippocampus erectus; Hippocampus ingens; Hippocampus reidi. Libro rojo de peces marinos de Colombia. M. Luz Stella Mejia and P. Arturo Acero: 77-83.

Ashley-Ross, M. A. (2002). “Mechanical properties of the dorsal fin muscle of seahorse (Hippocampus) and pipefish (Syngnathus).” Journal of Experimental Zoology 293(6): 561-577.

Bell, S. S., et al. (2002). “Assessing the impact of boat propeller scars on fish and shrimp utilizing seagrass beds.” Ecological Applications 12(1): 206-217.

Britz, R. and G. D. Johnson (2002). “‘Paradox Lost’: Skeletal Ontogeny of Indostomus Paradoxus and Its Significance for the Phylogenetic Relationships of Indostomidae (Teleostei, Gasterosteiformes).” American Museum Novitates. New York NY(3383): 1-43.

Bull, C. e. (2002). Seahorse husbandry in public aquaria: 2002 Manual, with chapters contributed by members of the Syngnathid discussion group. John G. Shedd Aquarium. Chicago, Illinois.

Burke, L., et al. (2002). Reefs at Risk in Southeast Asia, World Resource Institutue.

Cakic, P., et al. (2002). “Biometric analysis of Syngnathus abaster populations.” Journal of fish biology 60(6): 1562-1569.

Carcupino, M., et al. (2002). “Functional significance of the male brood pouch in the reproductive strategies of pipefishes and seahorses: a morphological and ultrastructural comparative study on three anatomically different brood pouches.” Journal of Fish Biology 61: 1465-1480.

Chenoweth, S. F., et al. (2002). “Phylogeography of the pipefish, Urocampus carinirostris, suggests secondary intergradation of ancient lineages.” Marine Biology 141: 541-547.

Chu, M., et al. (2002). “Social and genetic monogamy in territorial and loosely colonial populations of Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens).” Auk 119(3): 770-777.

Connolly, R. (2002). Protection and movement of leafy seadragons, Coast and Seas, in collaboration with South Australia Research and Development Institute: 21.

Connolly, R. M., et al. (2002). “Abundance, movement and individual identification of leafy seadragons, Phycodurus eques (Pices: Syngnathidae).” Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 777-780.

Connolly, R. M., et al. (2002). “Patterns of movement and habitat use by leafy seadragons tracked ultrasonically.” Journal of Fish Biology 61: 684-695.

Cowley, P. D. and A. K. Whitfield (2002). “Biomass and production estimates of a fish community in a small South African estuary.” Journal of Fish Biology 61: 74-89.

D’Entremont, J. (2002). Sex-related differences in feeding behaviour and diet in Hippocampus guttulatus. Biology. Montreal, McGill University: 25.

Denney, N. H., et al. (2002). “Life-history correlates of maximum population growth rates in marine fishes.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269: 2229-2237.

DePraeter, A. (2002). Morphometric variability in Hippocampus erectus along the western Atlantic coast. Biology. Montreal, McGill University: 41.

Dias, T. L., et al. (2002). “Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 (Syngnathidae).” Environmental Biology of Fishes 65(3): 326-326.

Dickson, B. (2002). International conservation treaties, poverty and development: The case of CITES. Natural Resource Perspectives. O. D. Institute. London, UK. 74.

Douglas-Helders, G. M., et al. (2002). “Wild fish are not a significant reservoir for Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis (Page, 1987).” Journal of Fish Diseases 25(10): 569-574.

Fritsches, K. A. and N. J. Marshall (2002). “Independant and conjugate eye movements during optokenesis in teleost fish.” The Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 1241-2352.

Gill, A. C. and J. M. Kemp (2002). “Widespead Indo-Pacific shore-fish species: a challenge for taxonomists, biogeographers, ecologists, and fishery and conservation managers.” Environmental Biology of Fishes 65: 165-174.

Ginsberg, J. (2002). “CITES at 30, or 40.” Conservation Biology 16(5): 1184-1191.

Goater, T. M. and S. F. Jepps (2002). “Prevalence and intensity of Haemobaphes diceraus (Copepoda: Pennellidae) from Shiner Perch, Cymatogaster aggregata (Embiotocidae).” The Journal of Parasitology 88(1): 194-197.

Golani, D. and M. Fine (2002). “On the occurrence of Hippocampus fuscus in the eastern Mediterranean.” Journal of Fish Biology 60(3): 764-766.

Green, C., et al. (2002). Developing techniques to mark otoloths of hatchery-reared pot-bellied seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) using strontium chloride. Victoria, Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute: 22.

Greño, J. S.-C. (2002). Ecology of the weedy seadragon Phyllopteryx taeniolatus. Departamento de Biologia Animal. Barcelona, Universidad de Barcelona: 62.

Grosholz, E. (2002). “Ecological and evolutionary consequences of coastal invastions.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17(1): 22-27.

Gubrium, J. F. and J. A. Holstein (2002). Handbook of Interview Research: Context and Method. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Gullström, M., et al. (2002). “Seagrass ecosystems in the western Indian Ocean.” Ambio 31(7-8): 588-569.

Hadderingh, R. H. and Z. Jager (2002). “Comparison of fish impingement by a thermal power station with fish populations in the Ems Estuary.” Journal of Fish Biology 61(S1): 105-124.

Haskell, J. P., et al. (2002). “Fractal geometry predicts verying body size scaling relationships for mammal and bird home ranges.” Nature 418(1 Aug 2002): 527-530.

Herkenrath, P. (2002). “The implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity – a non-government perspective ten years on.” Review of European Community & International Environmental Law 11(1): 29-37.

Hiddink, J. G. and Z. Jager (2002). “Abundance and reproduction of Nilsson’s pipefish on tidal flats.” Journal of Fish Biology 61(Supplement A): 125-137.

Hippel, F. A. V. and W. V. Hippel (2002). “Sex, drugs and animal parts: will Viagra save threatened species?” Environmental Conservation 29(3): 227-281.

Job, S. D., et al. (2002). “Culturing the oceanic seahorse, Hippocampus kuda.” Aquaculture 214: 333-341.

Johansen, H. P. (2002). “CITES Listing Criteria and Fisheries Management – A Cause for Concern.” In. IWMC World Conservation Trust.

Jun-yi, L., et al. (2002). “The ingestion, growth and ecological conversion efficiency of Hippocampus kuda under tile intensive rearing conditions.” Journal of Fishery Sciences of China (in Chinese) 26(1): 61-66.

Libertini, A., et al. (2002). “Genome size and Adenine-Thymine DNA nuclear content in three species of the genus Syngnathus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae).” Biologia marina mediterranea 9(1, pt. 2): 763-765.

Lipton, A. P. and M. Thangaraj (2002). Present status of seahorses fishing along the Palk Bay coast of Tamilnadu. Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series. N. G. Menon and N. Venugopal, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 174: 5-8.

Lu, W.-I. (2002). The phylogenetic relationship of five seamoth species with some biological aspects of Pegasus volitans. Marine Biology. Taiwan ROC, National Sun Yat-Sen University (NSYSU).

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Silveira, R. B. (2000). “Desenvolvimento osteologico de Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg (Pisces, Syngnathiformes, Syngnathidae), em laboratorio.II. Periodo juvenil – (Osteologic development of H. reidi inder laboratory conditions. II. Juvenile phase).” Revta bras, Zool. 17(2): 515-531.

Takahasi, E. (2000). Life history characteristics of double-ended pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch), in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. School of Environmental and Applied Sciences. Nathan, Queensland, Australia, Griffith University. M.Phil: 97 pp.

Takegaki, T. (2000). “Monogamous mating system and spawning cycle in the gobiid fish, Amblygobius phalaena (Gobiidae).” Environmental Biology of Fishes 59(1): 61-67.

Tershy, B. R. and D. A. Croll (2000). “Parental investment, adult sex ratios, and sexual selection in a socially monogamous seabird.” Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 48: 52-60.

Toeffie, Z., et al. (2000). A preliminary investigation of the genetic and morphometric variation amongst populations of the Knysna seashore Hippocampus capensis from the Knysna and Swartvlei estuaries.

Toefy, Z. (2000). A preliminary examination of the morphological and genetic structure within populations of the Knysna seahorse Hippocampus capensis (Pices: Syngnathidae) from two South African estuaries. Zoology. Cape Town, University of the Western Cape: 83.

Upton, S. J., et al. (2000). “A new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from the weedy sea dragon Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Osteichthyes: Syngnathidae).” Diseases of aquatic organisms 43: 55-59.

Valle Ferreira, L. (2000). “Effects of flooding duration on species richness, floristic composition and forest structure in river margin habitat in Amazonian blackwater floodplain forests: implications for future design of protected areas.” Biodiversity and Conservation 9: 1-14.

Vanderklift, M. A. and P. S. Lavery (2000). “Patchiness in assemblages of epiphytic macroalgae on Posidonia coriacea at a hierarchy of spatial scales.” Marine Ecology Progress Series 192: 127-135.

Wade, P. R. (2000). “Bayesian methods in conservation biology.” Conervation biology 14(5): 1308-1316.

Watanabe, S., et al. (2000). “male internal fertilization and introsperm-like sperm of the seaweed pipefish (Syngnathus schlegeli).” zoological science 17: 759-767.

Wilson, E. O. (2000). “On the future of conservation biology.” Conservation Biology 14(1): 1-3.

Wilson, M. J. and A. C. J. Vincent (2000). “Preliminary success in closing the life cycle of exploited seahorse species, Hippocampus spp., in captivity.” Aquarium Sciences and Conservation 2: 179-196.

Woods, C. (2000). “Seahorse project.” Aquaculture update 27: 3-4.

Woods, C. M. C. (2000). “Improving initial survival in cultured seahorses, Hippocampus abdominalis Leeson, 1827 (Teleostei: Syngnathidae).” Aquaculture 190(3-4): 377-388.

Woods, C. M. C. (2000). “Preliminary observations on breeding and rearing the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis (teleostei: Syngnathidae) in captivity.” New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34: 475-485.

Pre-2000s

Zenuto, R. R., et al. (1999). “Sexual size dimorphism, testes size and mating system in two populations of Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae).” Journal of Natural History 33: 305-314.

Zander, C. D., et al. (1999). “Parasite communities of the Salzhaff (Northwest Mecklenburg, Baltic Sea). I. Structure and dynamics of communities of littoral fish, especially small-sized fish.” Parasitol Res. 85: 356-372.

Woods, C. (1999). “Seahorses: Endearing and endangered.” New Zealand Geographic 43: 60-72.

Woods, C. (1999). “Seahorse wrangling.” NZ Science Monthly May 1999: 6-7.

Woods, C. (1999). “Management and culture of marine species used in traditional medecines.” Aquaculture update(22): 4-5.

Watanabe, S., et al. (1999). “Immunocytochemical detection of mitochondria-rich cells in the brood pouch epithelium of the pipefish, Syngnathus schlegeli: structural comparison with mitochondria-rich cells in the gills and larval epidermis.” Cell Tissue Res 295: 141-149.

Walker, S. M. (1999). Sea Horses. Minneapolis, The Lerner Publishing Group.

Wagner, R. H. (1999). “Sexual size dimorphism and assortative mating in razorbills (Alca torda).” The Auk 116(2): 542-544.

Turner, S. J., et al. (1999). “Seagrass patches and landscapes: The influence of wind-wave dynamics and hierarchical arrangements of spatial structure on macrofaunal seagrass communities.” Estuaries 22(4): 1016-1032.

Tseng, M. and L. Rowe (1999). “Sexual dimorphism and allometry in the giant water strider Gigantometra gigas.” Canadian Journal of Zoology 77: 923-929.

Tops, S. (1999). An investigation into the effects of habitat complexity and food types on the behaviour of the Knysna Seahorse – Hippocampus capensis, University of St. Andrews.

Thorbjarnarson, J. (1999). “Crocodile tears and skins: International trade, economic constraints, and limits to the sustainable use of crocodilians.” Conservation Biology 13(3): 465-470.

Takegaki, T. and A. Nakazono (1999). “Reproductive behavior and mate fidelity in the monogamous goby, Valenciennea longipinnis.” Ichthyological Research 46(2): 115-123.

Srinivasan, M. V. (1999). “When one eye is better than two.” Nature 399: 305-307.

Shellman-Reeve, J. S. (1999). “Courting strategies and conflicts in a monogamous, biparental termite.” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 266: 137-144.

Seamon, J. O. and G. H. Adler (1999). “Short-term use of space by a neotropical forest rodent, Proechimys semispinosus.” Journal of Mammalogy 80(3): 899-904.

Scott, B., et al. (1999). “Potential effects of maternal factors on spawning stock-recruitment relationships under varying fishing pressure.” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56(10): 1882-1890.

Schofield, P. J. and L. J. Chapman (1999). “Interactions between Nile perch, Lates niloticus, and other fishes in Lake Nabugabo, Uganda.” Environmental Biology of Fishes 55: 343-358.

Sankaran, M. and S. J. McNaughton (1999). “Determinants of biodiverisity regulate compositional stability of communities.” Nature 401(October 14): 691-693.

Rogers, G. (1999). Rediscovered estuarine pipefish in danger again. Eastern Province Herald: 6.

Robins, J. B. and J. G. McGilvray (1999). “The AusTED II, an improved trawl efficiency device 2. Commercial performance.” Fisheries Research 40: 29-41.

Roberts, C. M. and J. P. Hawkins (1999). “Extinction risk in the sea.” TREE 14(6): 241-246.

Ratajczak, D. (1999). “Searching for dragons: the enigma of southern waters.” Wildlife Australia.Brisbane 36(1): 12-15.

Ranta, E. and V. Kaitala (1999). “Punishment of polygyny.” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 266: 2337-2341.

Prohl, H. and W. Hodl (1999). “Parental investment, potential reproductive rates, and mating system in the strawberry dart-poison frog, Dendrobates pumilio.” Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 46: 215-220.

Prenter, J., et al. (1999). “Sexual dimorphism and reproductive investment by female spiders: a comparative analysis.” Evolution 53(6): 1987-1994.

Okuda, N. (1999). “Sex roles are not always reversed when the potential reproductive rate is higher in females.” The American Naturalist 153(5): 540-548.

Oksanen, T. A., et al. (1999). “Maternal effort and male quality in the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus.” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 266: 1495-1499.

Oconner, E. (1999). Pegasus volitans Linn. commonly known as sea moth or sea dragon., University of the Philippines.

Oconner, E. (1999). Histo-Physiological development in the pregnancy of male seahorse (Hippocampus comensis), University of the Philippines.

Moreno, J., et al. (1999). “Effects of parental care on reproductive success in the polygynous spotless starling Sturnus unicolor.” Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 47: 47-53.

Moore, O. R., et al. (1999). “Extrapair mating system of an asynchronously breeding tropical songbird: The Mangrove Swallow.” Auk 116(4): 1039-1046.

Moczek, A. P. (1999). “Facultative paternal investment in the polyphenic beetel Onthophagus taurus: the role of male morphology and social context.” Behavioral Ecology 10(6): 641-647.

Miranda Marure, M. (1999). Aspectos reproductivos de Oostethus lineatus en el sistema estuarino de Tecolutla, Veracruz, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

Meyer, D. L. (1999). “Effects of live-bait shrimp trawling on seagrass beds and fish bycatch in Tampa Bay, Florida.” Fishery Bulletin 97(1): 193-199.

Marlen, M. D. and R. U. Fischer (1999). “Parental investment in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.” Journal of Herpetology 33(2): 306-309.

Lourie, S. A., et al. (1999). Seahorses: An identification guide to the world’s species and their conservation. London, UK, Project Seahorse.

Lourie, S. A., et al. (1999). “The taxonomy of Vietnam’s exploited seahorses (family Syngnathidae).” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66: 231-256.

Lourie, S. A., et al. (1999). “The taxonomy of Vietnam’s exploited seahorses (family Syngnathidae).” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66(2): 231-256.

Longhurst, A. (1999). “Double vision: two views of the North Atlantic fishery.” Fisheries Research 40: 1-5.

Lockyear, J. (1999). Proposal to change the IUCN red listing of Hippocampus capensis Boulenger 1900 (Knysna seahorse), Rhodes University.

Lockyear, J. (1999). Abundance and distribution of the Knysna Seahorse, Hippocampus capensis.

Lane, A. (1999). Literature review of: Anthropogenic impacts on syngnathid fishes in Australia, with particular reference to the seadragons Phycodurus eques and Phyllopteryx taeniolatus, Southern Cross Unversity.

Lambers, P. H. (1999). “The actinopterygian fish fauna of the Late Kimmeridgian and Early Tithonian ‘Plattenkalke’near Solnhofen (Bavaria, Germany): state of the art.” Geologie en Mijnbouw 78(2): 215-229.

Lally, K. and H. P. (1999). “Seahorses – A forgotten species.” Reef Research: 31-32.

Kramer, D. L. and M. R. Chapman (1999). “Implications of fish home range size and relocation for marine reserve function.” Environmental Biology of Fishes 55: 65-79.

Kornienko, E. S. and A. L. Drozdov (1999). “Gametogenesis in the far eastern pipefish Syngnathus acusimilis.” Russian Journal of Marine Biology 25(4): 353-357.

Kokita, T. and A. Nakazono (1999). “Pair territoriality in the longnose filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris.” Ichthyological Research 46(3): 297-302.

King, M. and U. Faasili (1999). “Community-based management of subsistence fisheries in Samoa.” Fisheries Management and Ecology 6: 133-144.

Kelt, D. A. and D. Van Vuren (1999). “Energetic constraints and the relationship between body size and home range area in mammals.” Ecology 80(1): 337-340.

Jones, A. G., et al. (1999). “Clustered microsatellite mutations in the pipefish Syngnathus typhle.” Genetics 152(July): 1057-1063.

Jones, A. G., et al. (1999). “The genetic mating system of a sex-role-reversed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle): a molecular inquiry.” behav ecol sociobiol 46: 357-365.

Hughes, C. (1999). Effects of stocking density on feeding behaviour of Hippocampus sp.

Halliday, R. G. and C. G. Cooper (1999). “Evaluation of separator grates for reduction of bycatch in the silver hake (Merluccius bilinearis) otter trawl fishery off Nova Scotia, Canada.” Fisheries Research 40: 237-249.

Gowans, S. and L. Rendell (1999). “Head-butting in northern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus): a possible function for big heads.” Marine Mammal Science 15(4): 1342-1350.

Gontard-Danek, M. C. and A. P. Moller (1999). “The strength of sexual selection: a meta-analysis of bird studies.” Behavioral Ecology 10(5): 476-486.

Gokulakannan, K. and N. Veerappan (1999). “Taming the “horses” in tanks?” Seshaiyana 7(1): 2-3.

Giwojna, P. and B. Giwojna (1999). Seahorse Breeding Secrets. Part I: Ten common mistakes and how to avoid them. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium. 22: 8-31.

Giwojna, P. and B. Giwojna (1999). Seahorse Breeding Secrets. Part II: Ten common mistakes and how to avoid them. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium. 22: 8-27.

Gasparini, J. L. and R. L. Teixeira (1999). “Reproductive aspects of the Gulf Pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli (Teleostei: Syngnathidae), from Southeastern Brazil.” Rev. Brasil. Biol. 59(1): 87-90.

Gasparini, J. and R. Teixeira (1999). “Reproductive aspects of the gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli (Teleostei: Syngnathidae), from Southeastern Brazil.” Revista Brasileira de Biologia 59(1): 87-90.

Gaspar, M. B., et al. (1999). “Effect of tooth spacing and mesh size on the catch of the Portuguese clam and razor clam dredge.” ICES Journal of Marine Science 56: 103-110.

Flynn, A. J. and D. A. Ritz (1999). “Effect of the habitat complexity and predatory style on the capture success of fish feeding on aggregated prey.” J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 79: 487-494.

Fiumera, A. C., et al. (1999). “Effective population size in the captive breeding program on the Lake Victoria cichlid Paralabidochromis chilotes.” Zoo Biology 18: 215-222.

Engen, F. and I. Folstad (1999). “Cod courtship song: a song at the expense of dance?” Canadian Journal of Zoology 77: 542-550.

Dedah, S. O., et al. (1999). “Conservative fit of the Schaefer model for a multispecies fishery.” Fisheries Research 41: 155-168.

Cuervo, J. J. and A. P. Moller (1999). “Phenotypic variation and fluctuating asymmestry in sexually dimorphic feather ornaments in relation to sex and mating system.” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68: 505-529.

Cooper, A. B. and M. Mangel (1999). “The dangers of idgnoring metapopulation structure for the conservation of salmonids.” Fish. Bull. 97: 213-226.

Collin, S. P. and H. B. Collin (1999). “The foveal photoreceptor mosaic in the pipefish, Corythoichthyes paxtoni (Syngnathidae, Teleostei).” Histology and Histopathology 14(2): 369-382.

Catry, P., et al. (1999). “Evolution of reversed sexual size dimorphism in skuas and jaegers.” The Auk 116(1): 158-168.

Cassini, M. H. (1999). “The evolution of reproductive systems in pinnipeds.” Behavioral Ecology 10(5): 612-616.

Casey, S. p. (1999). Conservation genetics of seahorse (Hippocampus species), University of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College.

Carcupino, M., et al. (1999). “Testis structure and symplastic spermatid formation during spermatogenesis of pipefishes.” Journal of Fish Biology 55: 344-353.

Burley, N. T. and J. D. Calkins (1999). “Sex ratios and sexual selection in socially monogamous zebra finches.” Behavioral Ecology 10(6): 626-635.

Boothroyd, D., et al. (1999). Research proposal for the husbandry department at the National Marine Aquarium, as part of the NMA’s “World of Seahorses” project, National Marine Aquarium, Plymouth, UK.

Bishop, J. M. and M. H. Khan (1999). “Use of intertidal and adjacent mudflats by juvenile penaeid shrimps during 24-h tidal cycles.” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 232: 39-60.

Annett, C. A., et al. (1999). “Male and female parental roles in the monogamous cichlid, Tilapia mariae, introduced in Florida.” Environmental Biology of Fishes 54: 283-293.

Anil, M. K., et al. (1999). “Larval rearing of seahorse Hippocampus kuda under laboratory conditions.” Marine Fisheries Information Service 162: 23-25.

Angermeier, P. L. and M. R. Winston (1999). “Characterizing community diversity acorss Virginia landscapes: prerequisite for conservation.” Ecological Applications 9(1): 335-349.

(1999). Marshall Chang – Tropical Seahorse project. Reef Research. 9: 17.

(1999). “One in the eye for fish’s victims.” New Scientist(24 April 1999): 25.

(1999). Traffic – East/Southern Africa, East/Southern Africa.

Zhaohui, Z., et al. (1998). “Guochan hailongke yaoyong yulei xitong yangju (A systematic study on the TCM Chinese syngnathidae).” Zhongguo haiyang yaowu (Chinese Journal of Marine drugs) 1(65): 31-34.

Youngson, A. F. and E. Verspoor (1998). “Interactions between wild and introduced Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55(Suppl. 1): 153-160.

Yoshino, T. and H. Yoshigou (1998). “First records of two freshwater pipefishes of the genus Microphis (Syngnathiformes: Syngnathidae) from Japan.” Ichthyological Research 45(2): 201-204.

Woods, C. (1998). “Seahorse culture.” Seafood New Zealand 6(3): 31-33.

Wong, B. B. M. (1998). Saving the seahorse. Legal instruments and community-based management: evaluating strategies for the conservation of syngnathids in Australia and the Philippines, The Australian National University.

Wolf, B. (1998). A review of the husbandry and disease problems associated with the captive culture and breeding of seahorses, Hippocampus species, University of Plymouth.

Wilson, M. J. and A. C. J. Vincent (1998). “Preliminary success in closing the life cycle of exploited seahorse species, Hippocampus spp., in captivity.” Aquarium Sciences and Conservation 2(4): 179-196.

Wiklund, C., et al. (1998). “Decoupling of reproductive rates and parental expenditure in a polyandrous butterfly.” Behavioral Ecology 9(1): 20-25.

Walsh, C. J. and B. D. Mitchell (1998). “Factors associated with variations in abundance of epifaunal caridean shrimps between and within estuarine seagrass meadows.” Marine and freshwater research 49(8): 769-777.

Walsh, C. and B. Mitchell (1998). “Factors associated with variations in abundance of epifaunal caridean shrimps between and within estuarine seagrass meadows.” Marine and freshwater research.

Vitturi, R., et al. (1998). “Conventional karyotype, nucleolar organizer regions and genome size in five Mediterranean species of Syngnathidae (Pisces, Syngnathiformes).” Journal of Fish Biology 52: 677-687.

Vincent, A. and Y. Sadovy (1998). Reproductive Ecology in the Conservation and Management of Fishes. Behavioral Ecology and Conservation Biology. T. Caro. New York, USA, Oxford University Press: 209-245.

Vincent, A. (1998). Seahorses under siege. Nature Australia. 25: 57-63.

Valdes, E., et al. (1998). Seahorse nutrition: preliminary study assessing current diet of Hippocampus kuda, Toronto Zoo.

Truong, S. K., Ed. (1998). The Marine Biology of the South China Sea III. Prospects for community-based seahorse aquaculture in Vietnam. Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press.

Tolimieri, N. (1998). “The relationship among microhabitat characteristics, recruitment and adult abundance in the Stoplight Parrotfish, Sparisoma viride, at three spatial scales.” Bull.Mar.Sci. 62(1): 253-268.

Toefy, Z. (1998). Distribution, abundance, morphometrics and genetics of the Knysna seahorse, Hippocampus capensis, University of the Western Cape; Inst. of Zoology.

Spencer, P. B. S., et al. (1998). “Enhancement of reproductive success through mate choice in a social rock-wallaby, Petrogale assimilis (Macropodidae) as revealed by microsatellite markers.” Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 43(1): 1-9.

Schmidt, K. (1998). “Ecology’s catch of the day.” Science 281(10 July 1998): 192-193.

Scarr, D. (1998). Sea Horses: Camouflaged Cuties. Dive Training. 8: 88-92.

Rozas, L. P. and T. J. Minello (1998). “Nekton use of salt marsh, seagrass, and nonvegetated habitats in a south Texas (USA) estuary.” Bulletin of Marine Science 63(3): 481-501.

Roy, K., et al. (1998). “marine latitudinal diversity gradients: Tests of causal hypotheses.” Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci 95: 3699-3702.

Risk, A. (1998). “The effects of interactions with reef residents on the settlement and subsequent persistence of ocean surgeonfish, Acanthurus bahianus.” Environmental Biology of Fishes 51: 377-389.

Reavis, R. H. and G. W. Barlow (1998). “Why is the coral-reef fish Valenciennea strigata (Gobiidae) monogamous?” Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 43: 229-237.

Prochazka, K. (1998). “Spatial and trophic partitioning in cryptic fish communities of shallow subtidal reefs in False Bay, South Africa.” Environmental Biology of Fishes 51: 201-220.

Powling, G. M. (1998). Seahorses: a retrospective of my visit to the Seahorse Nature Aquarium. Devon Life: 31.

Powell, P. B. (1998). The Care and Husbandry of the Leafy Seadragon, Phycodurus eques, Dallas World Aquarium: 9.

Pollock, L. J. (1998). An assessment of seahorse aquaculture at the Institute of Oceanography Nhatrang Vietnam., University of Sterling.

Poinder, I., et al. (1998). “The environmental effects of prawn trawling in the far northern section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: 1991-1996.”

Plante, R., et al. (1998). “Coelacanth population, conservation and fishery activity at Grande Comore, West Indian Ocean.” Marine Ecology Progress Series 166: 231-236.

Pham, T. M., et al. (1998). “Embryonic and larval development of the seahorse Hippocampus kuda.” Russian Journal of Marine Biology 24(5): 325-329.

Petrie, M. and B. Kempenaers (1998). “Extra-pair paternity in birds: Explaining variation between species and populations.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13(2): 52-58.

Perrett, D. I., K.J. Lee, I. Penton-Voak, D. Rowland, S. Yoahikawa, D.M. Burt, S.P. Henzi, D.L. Castles, S. Akamatsu (1998). “Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness.” Nature 394: 884-887.

Perez, J. A. A. and P. R. Pezzuto (1998). “Valuable shellfish species in the by-catch of shrimp fishery in southern Brazil: Spatial and temporal patterns.” Journal of Shellfish Research 17(1): 303-309.

Perante, N. C., et al. (1998). Demographics of the seahorse Hippocampus comes in the central Philippines. 3rd International Conference on the Marine Biology of the South China Sea, Hong Kong.

Perante, N., et al. (1998). Demographics of the seahorse Hippocampus comes in the central Philippines. The Marine Biology of the South China Sea. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Marine Biology of the South China Sea, Hong Kong. 28: 439-448.

Pearce, F. (1998). “Washed up.” New Scientist 25 July 1998: 32-35.

Payne, M. F., et al. (1998). “Growth and survival of juvenile pipefish (Stigmatopora argus) fed live copepods with high and low HUFA content.” Aquaculture 167: 237-245.

Parry-Jones, R. and A. Vincent (1998). Can we tame wild medicine? New Scientist. 157: 26-29.

Owens, I. P. F. and I. R. Hartley (1998). “Sexual dimorphism in birds: why are there so many different forms of dimorphism?” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 265: 397-407.

Ong, D. M. (1998). “The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES, 1973): implications of recent developments and EC environmental law.” Journal of Environmental Law 10(2): 291-314.

Olson, D. M. and E. Dinerstein (1998). “The Global 200: A representative approach to conserving the Earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions.” Conservation Biology 12(3): 502-515.

Okey, T. and D. e. Pauly (1998). Trophic mass-balance model of Alaska’s Prince William Soubd Ecosystem, for the Post-spill period 1994-1996, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia.

Neems, R. M., et al. (1998). “Lifetime reproductive success in a swarming midge: trade-offs and stabilizing selection for male body size.” Behavioral Ecology 9(3): 279-286.

Moreau, M. A., et al. (1998). Proceedings of the First International Workshop on The Management and Culture of Marine Species Used in Traditional Medicines.

Moreau, M. A., et al. (1998). Proceedings of the First International Workshop on the Management and Culture of Marine Species Used in Traditional Medicines, Cebu City, Philippines.

Moller, A. P. and R. Thornhill (1998). “Male parental care, differential investment by females and sexual selection.” Anim. Behav. 55: 1507-1515.

Moczek, A. P. (1998). “Horn polyphenism in the beetle Onthophagus taurus: larval diet quality and plasticity in parental investment detemine adult body size and male horn morphology.” Behavioral Ecology 9(6): 636-641.

Mittermeier, R. A., et al. (1998). “Biodviersity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: approaches to setting conservation priorities.” Conservation Biology 12(3): 516-520.

Miller, M. W. and M. E. Hay (1998). “Effects of fish predation and seaweed competition on the survival and growth of corals.” Oecologica 113: 231-238.

McLean, M. and C. Woods (1998). “Seahorse culture.” Aquaculture Update(20): 1-2.

McKinnell, S. and M. P. Seki (1998). “Shark bycatch in the Japanese high seas squid driftnet fishery in the North Pacific Ocean.” Fisheries Research 39: 127-138.

Matsunaga, T. and A. Rahman (1998). “What brought the adaptive immune system to vertebrates? – The jaw hypothesis and the seahorse.” Immunological Reviews 166: 177-186.

Matsunaga, T. and A. Rahman (1998). “What brought the adaptive immune system to vertebrates? — The jaw hypothesis and the seahorse.” Immunological reviews: Vol. 166, p.

Mallela, J., et al. (1998). “The seahorses of Southern Tanzania.” MIOMBO(19): 6-7.

Malakoff, D. (1998). “Death by suffocation in the Gulf of Mexico.” Science 281(10 July 1998): 190-192.

Magurran, A. E. (1998). “Population differentiation without speciation.” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 353: 275-286.

MacKenzie, D. (1998). “Still at large: PCB’s dangerous cousins have slipped through the UN’s net.” New Scientist 4 July 1998: 6.

Mackay, B. (1998). Seadragons in wild and captive environments. Today’s Aquarist. 7: 5-9.

Lunn, K. E., et al. (1998). Proceedings of the first international aquarium workshop on seahorse husbandry, management, and conservation, John G. Shedd Aquarium: Chicago, USA.

Lowry, M. B. and I. M. Suthers (1998). “Home range, activity and distribution patterns of a temperate rocky-reef fish, Cheilodactylus fuscus.” Marine Biology 132: 569-578.

Lovejoy, N. R. (1998). “Marine incursion into South America.” Nature 396: 421-422.

Lockyear, J., et al. (1998). The effects of broodstock conditioning diets on reproductive output of the Knysna seahorse, Hippocampus capensis, and fitness of the young. Grahamstown (South Africa), FISA/PARADI.

Lock, P. A. and R. J. Naiman (1998). “Effects of stream size on bird community structure in coastal temperature forests of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A.” Journal of Biogeography 25: 773-782.

Leis, J. M. and B. M. Carson-Ewart (1998). “Complex behaviour by coral-reef fish larvae in open-water and pelagic environments.” Environmental Biology of Fishes 53: 259-266.

Lee, D. and M. Crumpler (1998). Husbandry protocols for Golden Sea Ponies, Chester Zoo.

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