This list is under construction.

AulostomidaeCentriscidae | Fistulariidae | PegasidaeSolenostomidae |Syngnathidae|

Acentronura AnarchopterusApterygocampusBhanotiaBryxBulbonaricusCampichthysChoeroichthysCorythoichthysCosmocampusDoryichthysDoryrhamphusDunckerocampusEnneacampusEntelurusFestucalexFilicampusHalicampusHaliichthysHeraldiaHippichthysHippocampusHistiogamphelusHypselognathusIchthyocampusKaupusKimblaeusKyonemichthysLeptoichthysLeptonotusLissocampusMaroubraMicrognathusMicrophisMinyichthysMitotichthysNannocampus – NerophisNotiocampusPenetopteryxPhoxocampusPhycodurus – PhyllopteryxPseudophallusPugnasoSiokunichthysSolegnathusStigmatoporaStipecampusSyngnathoides – SyngnathusTrachyrhamphusUrocampusVanacampus

AulorhynchidaeGasterostidaeHypoptychidae | Indostomidae


Longo, S.J., Faircloth, B.C., Meyer, A., Westneat, M.W., Alfaro, M.E. and P.C. Wainwright. 2017. Phylogenetic analysis of a rapid radiation of misfit fishes (Syngnathiformes) using ultraconserved elements. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 111:33-48.

Vincent, A.C.J., Sadovy, Y.J., Fowler, S.L. and S. Lieberman. 2013. The role of CITES in the conservation of marine fishes subject to international trade. Fish and Fisheries 15:563–592.

**Maypa, A. P., et al. 2012. Movement patterns and life history strategies of key coral reef and coastal pelagic fisheries species for consideration in MPA network design in the Coral Triangle. Report submitted to the Coral Triangle Support Partnership:

McClenachan, L., Cooper, A.B., Carpenter, K.E. and N.K. Dulvy. 2012. Extinction risk and bottlenecks in the conservation of charismatic marine species. Conservation Letters 5:73-80.

Pais, M.P., Henriques, S., Costa, M.J. and H.N. Cabral. 2012. A critical approach to the use of published data for baseline characterisation of marine fish assemblages: An exercise on Portuguese coastal waters. Ocean & Coastal Management 69:173-184.

Rajaram, R. and S. Murugan. 2012. Ichthyofaunal Diversity in Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve. Ecology of Faunal Communities on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands:103-116.

Leysen, H., Dumont, E.R., Brabant, L., Hoorebeke, L.V. and D. Adriaens. 2011. Modelling stress in the feeding apparatus of seahorses and pipefishes (Teleostei: Syngnathidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 104:680-691.

Leysen, H., Roos, G. and D. Adriaens. 2011. Morphological variation in head shape of pipefishes and seahorses in relation to snout length and developmental growth. Journal of Morphology 272:1259-1270.

Mobley, K.B., Small, C.M. and A.G. Jones. 2011. The genetics and genomics of Syngnathidae: pipefishes, seahorses and seadragons.Journal of Fish Biology 78:1624-1646.

Lees, J., Marss, T., Wilson, M.V.H., Saat, T. and H. Spilev. 2011. The sculpture and morphology of postcranial dermal armor plates and associated bones in gasterosteiforms and syngnathiforms inhabiting Estonian coastal waters. Acta Zoologica 93(4):422-435.



Longo, S.J., Goodearly, T. and P.C. Wainwright. 2018. Extremely fast feeding strikes are powered by elastic recoil in a seahorse relative, the snipefish, Macroramphosus scolopax. Proc. R. Soc. B 285:

Noguchi, T., Sakuma, K., Kitahashi, T., Itoh, H., Kano, Y., Shinohara, G., Hashimoto, J. and S. Kojima. 2014. No genetic deviation between two morphotypes of the snipefishes (Macroramphosidae: Macroramphosus) in Japanese waters. Ichthyological Research 62(3):368-373.

Alos, J., Cabanellas-Reboredo, M. and S. Lowerre-Barbieri. 2012. Diel behaviour and habitat utilisation by the pearly razorfish during the spawning season.Marine Ecology-Progress Series 460:207-220.

Bannikov, A.F. and G. Carnevale. 2012. A long-bodied centriscoid fish from the basal Eocene of Kabardino-Balkaria, northern Caucasus, Russia. Die Naturwissenschaften 99(5):379-389.

Paulus, T. 1995. Schnepfenmesserfische. Die seltene und schutzenswerte Fischfamilie Centriscidae. Das Aquarium(312):33-36.


Pinnegar, J.K., Tomczak, M.T. and J.S. Link. 2014. How to determine the likely indirect food-web consequences of a newly introduced non-native species: A worked example. Ecological Modelling 272:379-387.

Turker-Cakir, D., Çoktuğ, B. and K. Zengin. 2014. First record of the bluespotted cornetfish, Fistularia commersonii Ruppell, 1835 (Osteichthyes: Fistulariidae) in Edremit Bay (north-eastern Aegean Sea). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 30(1):164-167.

Bariche, M., Kajajian, A. and E. Azzurro. 2013. Reproduction of the invasive bluespotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii (Teleostei, Fistulariidae) in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology Research 9(2):169-180.

Bariche, M. and A. Kajajian. 2012. Population structure of the bluespotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii (Osteichthyes: Fistulariidae) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Biological Research 17:74-80.

Bodilis, P., et al. 2011. Further evidence of the establishment of Fistularia commersonii (Osteichthyes: Fistulariidae) in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biodiversity Records 4:1-4.

Deidun, A. 2011. On the increasing occurrence of the Bluespotted Cornetfish Fistularia commersonii (Rüppel, 1838) in the Central Mediterranean (Osteichthyes , Fistulariidae). Biodiversity Journal 2:19-26.

Yasemi, M. 2011. On the record of the red cornet fish Fistularia petimba (Syngnathiformes, Fistularidea) in Jask port, the Oman sea. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 11(1):226-234.

Sanna, D., Merella, P., Lai, T., Farjallah, S., Francalacci, P., Curini-Galletti, M., Pais, A. and M. Casu. 2010. Combined analysis of four mitochondrial regions allowed the detection of several matrilineal lineages of the lessepsian fish Fistularia commersonii in the Mediterranean Sea.Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 91:1289-1293.


Pajaro, M. G., et al. 2004. Biology, fishery and trade of sea moths (Pisces: Pegasidae) in the central Philippines. Oryx 38: 432-438.

Gosney, L. 1996. A molecular phylogeny of the Pegasidae (Sea Moths) and the implications for their conservation, Institute of Zoology.

Herold, D. and E. Clark. 1993. Monogamy, spawning and skin-shedding of the Sea Moth, Eurypegasus-draconis (Pisces, Pegasidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 37(3):219-236.

Myers, R. F. 1991. Syngnathidae & Pegasidae. Micronesian Reef Fishes. Barrigadam, Guam, Coral Graphics:82-90.

Palsson, W. A. and T. W. Pietsch. 1989. Revision of the Acanthopterygian Fish Family Pegasidae (Order Gasterosteiformes). Indo-Pacific (18):1-38.

Li, M., Chen, M., Huang, H., Tao, W., Cui, J. and H. Xiang. 2011. Neuroprotective effects of active ingredients isolated from Pegasus laternarius on cultured cerebral neurons.Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 31:73-82.


Orr, J.W. and R.A. Fritzsche. 1993. Revision of the Ghost Pipefishes, Family Solenostomidae (Teleostei, Syngnathoidei). Copeia 1993(1):168-182.Fishelso L. 1966. Solenostomus cyanopterus Blecker (Teleostei Solenostomidae) in Elat (Gulf of Akaba). Israel Journal of Zoology 15(3-4):95-103.


Zhu, L., Chen, M., Cheng, R., Ge, W., Zhang, G. and Y. Ge. 2018. Complete mitochondrial genome characterization of the alligator pipefish Syngnathoides biaculeatus and phylogenetic analysis of the family Syngnathidae. Conservation Genetic Resources

Hamilton, H., Saarman, N., Short, G., Sellas, A.B., Moore, B., Hoang, T., Grace, C., Gomon, M., Crow, K. and W. Simison. 2017. Molecular phylogeny and patterns of diversification in syngnathid fishes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 107:388–403.

Scapin, L., Cavraro, F., Malavasi, S., Riccato, F., Zucchette, M. and P. Franzoi. 2017. Linking pipefishes and seahorses to seagrass meadows in the Venice lagoon: Implication for conservation. Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2860

Neutens, C., Adriaens, D., Christiaens, J., De Kegel, B., Dierick, M., Boistel, R. and L. Van Hoorebeke. 2014. Grasping convergent evolution in syngnathids: a unique tale of tails. Journal of Anatomy 224:710-723.

Vieira, R.P., Monteiro, P., Ribeiro, J., Bentes, L., Oliveira, F., Erzini, K. and J. Gonçalves. 2014. Length-weight relationships of six syngnathid species from Ria Formosa, SW Iberian coast.Cahiers de Biologie Marine 55(1):9-12.

Williams, S.A., Janetski, N., Abbott, J., Blankenhorn, S., Cheng, B., Crafton, R.E., Hameed, S.O., Rapi, S. and D. Trockel. 2014. Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: Seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia.Environmental Management 54(6):1342-1355.

Adriaens, D., Neuten, C., Christiaens, J., Van Loo, D., De Kegel, B., Boistel, R. and L. Van Hoorebeke. 2012. Evolutionary morphology of the caudal musculoskeletal system in syngnathid fish: from swimming to prehension … in different ways. Integrative and Comparative Biology 52:E2-E2.

Grandcourt, E. 2012. Reef Fish and Fisheries in the Gulf. Coral Reefs of the World 3:127-161.

Hallett, C.S. and N.G. Hall. 2012. Equivalence factors for standardizing catch data across multiple beach seine nets to account for differences in relative bias. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science: 1-9.

Horinouchi, M., Tongnunui, P., Furumitsu, K., Nakamura, Y., Kanou, K., Yamaguchi, A., Okamoto, K. and M. Sano. 2012. Food habits of small fishes in seagrass habitats in Trang, southern Thailand. Fisheries Science 78(3):577-587.

LePage, V. 2012. A Study of Syngnathid Diseases and Investigation of Ulcerative Dermatitis. Master’s thesis submitted to the University of Guelph: 128pp.

LePage, V., Dutton, C.J., Kummrow, M., McLelland, D.J., Young, K. and J.S. Lumsden. 2012. Neoplasia of Captive Yellow Sea Horses (Hippocampus kuda) and Weedy Sea Dragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 43:50-58.

Neal, J.W., Adelsberger, C.M. and S.E. Lochmann. 2012. A Comparison of Larval Fish Sampling Methods for Tropical Streams. Marine and Coastal Fisheries 4(1):23-29.

Oliveira, F., et al. 2012. Habitat preferences of the Syngnathidae in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon (South Portugal). Poster submitted to the University of Aveiro.

Ahnesjö, I. and J. F. Craig. 2011. The biology of Syngnathidae: pipefishes, seadragons and seahorses. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1597-1602.

Avise JC and Liu JX. 2011. Multiple mating and its relationship to brood size in pregnant fishes versus pregnant mammals and other viviparous vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108:7091-7095.

Azevedo I, Ramos S, Mucha AP, and Bordalo AA. 2011. Applicability of ecological assessment tools for management decision-making: A case study from the Lima estuary (NW Portugal). Ocean and Coastal Management 72:54-63.

Ben Amor MM, Salem BM, Reynaud C, and Capape C. 2011. Length–weight relationships in syngnathid species from Tunisian waters (central Mediterranean). Marine Biodiversity Records 4:1-4.Leysen, H., et al. 2011. Modeling stress in the feeding apparatus of seahorses and pipefishes (Teleostei: Syngnathidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 104:680-691.

Leysen, H., Roos, G. and D. Adriaens. 2011. Morphological variation in head shape of pipefishes and seahorses in relation to snout length and developmental growth. Journal of Morphology 272(10):1259-1270.

Mobley, K. B., et al. 2011. The genetics and genomics of Syngnathidae: pipefishes, seahorses and seadragons. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1624-1646.

Rosenqvist, G. and A. Berglund. 2011. Sexual signals and mating patterns in Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1647-1661.

Přikryl, T., et al. 2011. New information about the anatomy of a peculiar fish of the genus Hipposyngnathus Daniltshenko, 1960. Comptes Rendus Palevol 10:559-566.

Scobell, S.K. and D.S. Mackenzie. 2011. Reproductive endocrinology of Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1662-1680.

Smith, T.M., Hindell, J.S., Jenkins, G.P., Connolly, R.M. and M.J. Keough. 2011. Edge effects in patchy seagrass landscapes: The role of predation in determining fish distribution. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 399:8-16.

Vincent, A.C.J. 2011. Saving the shallows: focusing marine conservation where people might care. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21(6):495-499.

Vincent, A.C.J., Foster, S.J. and H.J. Koldewey. 2011. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1681-1724.

Vincent, A.C.J., Giles, B.G., Czembor, C. and S.J. Foster. 2011. Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001).Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19:181pp.

Wilson, a. B. and J. W. Orr. 2011. The evolutionary origins of Syngnathidae: pipefishes and seahorses. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1603-1623.

Kleiber, D., Blight, L.K., Caldwell, I.R. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. The importance of seahorses and pipefishes in the diet of marine animals. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 21:205-223.

Leysen, H., Jouk, P., Brunain, M., Christiaens, J. and D. Adriaens. 2010. Cranial architecture of tube-snouted Gasterosteiformes (Syngnathus rostellatus and Hippocampus capensis).Journal of Morphology 271(3):255-270.

Leysen, H., Roos, G., Van Wassenbergh, S. and D. Adriaens. 2010. Syngnathid feeding apparatus morphology : long vs short snouts.Integrative and Comparative Biology 50(Suppl 1):E101-E101

Masonjones, H.D., Rose, E., McRae, L.B. and D.L. Dixson. 2010. An examination of the population dynamics of syngnathid fishes within Tampa Bay, Florida, USA.Current Zoology 56(1):118-133.

Paczolt, K.A. and A.G. Jones. 2010. Post-copulatory sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of male pregnancy. Nature 464:401-404.

Paladini, G., et al. 2010. The description of Gyrodactylus corleonis sp n. and G. neretum sp n. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) with comments on other gyrodactylids parasitising pipefish (Pisces: Syngnathidae). Folia Parasitologica 57(1):17-30.

Wilson, N. G. and G. W. Rouse. 2010. Convergent camouflage and the non-monophyly of ‘seadragons’ (Syngnathidae: Teleostei): suggestions for a revised taxonomy of syngnathids. Zoologica Scripta 39(6):551-558.

Shokri, M. R., et al. 2009. The effectiveness of seahorses and pipefish (Pisces: Syngnathidae) as a flagship group to evaluate the conservation value of estuarine seagrass beds. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19(5):588-595.

Sanna, D., et al. 2008. mtDNA control region and D-HPLC analysis: a method to evaluate the mating system in Syngnathidae (Teleostei). Marine Biology 153(3):269-275.

Martin-Smith, K. and A. C. J. Vincent. 2006. Exploitation and trade of Australian seahorses, pipehorses, sea dragons and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae). Oryx 40:141-151.

Rosa, I. L., et al. 2006. Collaborative monitoring of the ornamental trade of seahorses and pipefishes (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in Brazil: Bahia State as a case study. Neotropical Icthyology 4(2):247-252.

Xu, D., et al. 2005. Advance in the research of Syngnathidae in China. Chinese Journal of Marine drugs/Zhongguo Haiyang Yaowu 24(2):51-56.

Choo Chee, K. and C. Liew Hock 2004. A record of seahorse species (family Syngnathidae) in East Malaysia, with notes on their conservation. Malayan Nature Journal 56(4):409-420.

Fricke, R. 2004. Review of the pipefishes and seahorses (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) of New Calendonia, with descriptions of five new species. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie A (Biologie) 668:1-61.

Vizzini, S. and A. Mazzola. 2004. The trophic structure of the pipefish community (Pisces: Syngnathidae) from a Western Mediterranean seagrass meadow based on stable isotope analysis. Estuaries 27(2):325-333.

Choo, C. K. and H. C. Liew. 2003. Spatial distribution, substrate assemblages and size composition of sea horses (Family Syngnathidae) in the coastal waters of Penninsular Malaysia. Journal of Marine Biology Association U.K. 83:271-276.

CITES. 2003. Seahorses and other members of the family Syngnathidae (Decision 12.54). Universal minimum size limit for seahorses. Nineteenth Meeting of the Animals Committee:7pp.

Riccato, F., et al. 2003. Population structure and reproduction of three pipefish species (Pisces, Syngnathidae) in a sea grass meadow of the Venice Lagoon. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10(2, pt. 1):138-145.

Wilson, A. B., et al. 2003. The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns, and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae). Evolution 57:1374-1386.



Žalohar, J. and T. Hitij. 2012. The first known fossil record of pygmy pipehorses (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampinae) from the Coprolitic Horizon; Tunjice Hills, Slovenia. Annales de Paléontologie 98(2):131-151.

Vasquez-Yeomans, L., Quintal-Lizama, C. and M. Pereira-Flota. 2004. First record of Acentronura dendritica (Barbour, 1905) (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae) from Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science 75(1):127-129.

Acero P., A. 1988. First record of the pipefish Acentronura (Amphelikturus) dendritica (Synganthidae) from the Caribbean. Northest Gulf Science 10(1):61-62.


Sazima, C., Carvalho-Filho, A. and I. Sazima. 2009. The pipefish Anarchopterus tectus in western South Atlantic: clarification of its southernmost distribution. Marine Biodiversity Records 2:1-2.


Matsumoto, K., Sogabe, A. and Y. Yanagisawa. 2010. Male Ornamentation in a Sex-Role Reversed Pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus.Ethology 116(3):226-232.

Sogabe, A. and M. Takagi. 2013. Population genetic structure of the messmate pipefish Corythoicthys haematopterus in the northwest pacific: evidence for a cryptic species. SpringerPlus 2(2):1-12.

Sogabe, A. 2010. Partner recognition in a perennially monogamous pipefish, Corythoichthys haematopterus.Journal of Ethology 29:191-196.


Van Wassenbergh, S., Roos, G., Aerts, P., Herrel, A. and D. Adriaens. 2011. Why the long face? A comparative study of feeding kinematics of two pipefishes with different snout lengths. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1786-1798.


Leysen, H., et al. 2011. Musculoskeletal structure of the feeding system and implications of snout elongation in Hippocampus reidi and Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1799-1823

Takata, Y., et al. 2008. Records of the pipefish Dunckerocampus naia (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae) from Japan. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 55(2):135-138.


Ziyadi, M.S.F., Jawad, L.A., and M.A. Al-Mukhtar. 2018 Halicampus zavorensis Dawson, 1984 (Syngnathidae): new record for Iraqi marine waters and for the Arabian Gulf area. Cah. Biol. Mar 59:121-126.



Becerril‐Garcia, E. E., Petatan‐Ramirez, D., Ortiz‐Aguirre, I. and A. Ayala‐Bocos. 2018. First record of the Pacific seahorse Hippocampus ingens in Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Journal of fish biology 92(4):1207-1210.

Claassens, L. 2018. Aspects of the population ecology, habitat use and behavior of the endangered Knysna Seahorse (Hippocampus capensis Boulenger, 1900) in a residential marina estate, Knysna, South Africa: implications for conservation. PhD thesis, Rhodes University.

Claassens, L. Booth, A.J. and A.N. Hodgson. 2018. An endangered seahorse selectively chooses an artificial structure. Environmental Biology of Fishes 101(8):723-733.

Claassens, L. and A.N. Hodgson. 2018. Monthly population density and structure patterns of an endangered seahorse Hippocampus capensis: a comparison between natural and artificial habitats. Journal of Fish Biology 92:2000-2015.

Correia, M., Campoy, A., Madeira, C. and J.P. Andrade. 2018. Is filament clipping an effective tool for tissue sampling in Hippocampus guttulatus? Environmental Biology of Fishes

Correia, M., Koldewey, H.J., Andrade, J.P., Esteves, E., and J. Palma. 2018. Identifying key environmental variables of two seahorse species (H. guttulatus and H. hippocampus) in the Ria Formosa Lagoon, South Portugal. Environmental Biology of Fishes 101(9): 1357-1367.

Cunha, M., Berglund, A. Mendes, S. and N. Monteiro. 2018. The “Woman in Red” effect: pipefish males curb pregnancies at the sight of an attractive female. Proceedings of the Royal Society B

de Brauwer, M., Saunders, B.J., Ambo-Rappe, R., Jompa, Jamaluddin, McIlwain, J.L. and E. S. Harvey. 2018. Time to stop mucking around? Impacts of underwater photography on cryptobenthic fauna found in soft sediment habitats. Journal of Environmental Management 218:14-22.

Giglio, V.J., Ternes, M.L.F, Kassuga, A.D. and C.E.L. Ferreira. 2018. Scuba diving and sedentary fish watching: effects of photographer approach on seahorse behaviour. Journal of Ecotourism

Han, S., Rho, S., Noh, G.E. and J. Kim. 2018. Interspecific hybridization in seahorses: artificially produced hybrid offspring of Hippocampus kuda and Hippocampus reidi. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 21:11

Kim, M.J. Kim, H.C., Lee, W.C., Park, J.M., Kwak, S.N., Oh. Y., Kang, M.G. and S.H. Lee. 2018. Ecological Characteristics of the new recorded seahorse (Hippocampus haema) in Geoje-Hansan Bay, Korea. Journal of Coastal Research 85:351-355.

Kuo, T-C., Laksanawimol, P., Aylesworth, L., Foster, S.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2018. Changes in the trade of bycatch species corresponding to CITES regulations: the case of dried seahorse trade in Thailand. Biodiversity and Conservation


Kuo, T-C. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2018. Assessing the changes in international trade of marine fishes under CITES regulations – A case study of seahorses. Marine Policy 88:48–57.

Manning, C.G. Foster, S.J., Harasti, D. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2018. A holistic investigation of the ecological correlates of abundance and body size for the endangered White’s seahorse Hippocampus whitei. Journal of Fish Biology

Montes, M.A., Cardoso, M.L.V., Neves, C.H.C.B., Garcia, A.C.L., Da Silva, J.C. and R.B. Silveira. 2018. Genetic diversity and population structure of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Syngnathidae) in north-eastern Brazil: A conservation approach. Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems

Novelli, B., Otero Ferrer, F., Socorro, J.A. and L. Molina Dominguez. 2018. Early development of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Syngnathidae) within the male brood pouch. Journal of Fish Biology 92(6):1975-1984.

Qin, G., Johnson, C., Zhang, Y., Zhang, H., Yin, J., Miller, G.., Turingan, R. G., Guisbert, E. and Q. Lin. 2018. Temperature-induced physiological stress and reproductive characteristics of the migratory seahorse Hippocampus erectus during a thermal stress simulation. Biology Open 

Short, G., Smith, R. Motomura, H., Harasti and H. Hamilton. 2018. Hippocampusjapapigu, a new species of pygmy seahorse from Japan, with a redescription of H. pontohi (Teleostei, Syngnathidae). ZooKeys 779:27-49.

Wang, X., Han, X., Zhang, Y., Lui, S. and Q. Lin. 2018. Phylogenetic analysis and genetic structure of the seahorse, Hippocampus fuscus from the Arabian and Red Sea based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mitochondrial DNA Part A

Woodall, L. C., Otero-Ferrer, F., Correia, M., Curtis, J. M., Garrick-Maidment, N., Shaw, P. W., & H.J. Koldewey. 2018. A synthesis of European seahorse taxonomy, population structure, and habitat use as a basis for assessment, monitoring and conservation. Marine Biology 165(1):9.

Zhang, X and A.C.J. Vincent. 2018. Predicting distributions, habitat preferences and associated conservation implications for a genus of rare fishes, seahorses (Hippocampus spp). Diversity and Distributions

Aylesworth, L., Loh, T.L., Rongrongmuang, W. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2017. Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) as a case study for locating cryptic and data‐poor marine fishes for conservation. Animal Conservation 20:444–454.

Aylesworth, L., Phoonsawat, R. and A.C. Vincent. 2017. Effects of indiscriminate fisheries on a group of small data-poor species in Thailand. ICES Journal of Marine Science-Early online

Claassens, L. and A.N. Hodgson. 2017. Gaining insights into in situ behaviour of an endangered seahorse using action cameras. Journal of Zoology

Curtis, J.M.R., Santos, S.V., Nadeau, J.L., Gunn, B., Bigney Wilner, K., Balasubramanian, H., Overington, S., Lesage, C.-M., D’Entrmont, J. and Wieckowski, K. 2017. Life history and ecology of the elusive European short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus. Journal of Fish Biology 91(6):1603-1622.

Fonseca, T., David, F.S., Ribeiro, F.A., Wainberg, A.A. and W.C. Valenti. 2017. Technical and economic feasibility of integrating seahorse culture in shrimp/oyster farms. Aquaculture Research 48(2):655-664.

Foster, S.J., Aylesworth, L., Do, H.H., Bat, N.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2017. Seahorse exploitation and trade in Viet Nam. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 25(2):1-50.

Han, S.Y., Kim, J.K., Tashiro, F., Kai, Y. and H. Senou. 2017. Seahorses of the Hippocampus coronatus complex: taxonomic revision, and a description of Hippocampus haema, a new species from Korea and Japan (Teleosti, Syngnathidae). Zookeys (712):113-139

Han, S.Y., Kim, J.K., Tashiro, F., Kai, Y. and J.T. Yoo. 2017. Relative importance of ocean currents and fronts in population structures of marine fish: a lesson from the cryptic lineages of the Hippocampus mohnikei complex. Marine Biodiversity  doi:10.1007/s12526-017-0792-2.

Harasti, D. 2017. Southwards range extension of the great seahorse (Hippocampus kelloggi Jordan & Snyder, 1901) in Australia. Applied Ichthyology 33(5):1018-1020.

Lawson, J.M. 2017. The global search for seahorses in bycatch. Fisheries 42(1):34-39 (photo diary).

Lawson, J.M., Foster, S.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2017. Low bycatch rates add up to big numbers for a genus of small fishes. Fisheries 42(1):19-33.

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Praet, T. and D. Adriaens. 2012. Inspiration from nature: dynamic modelling of the musculoskeletal structure of the seahorse tail. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering 28(10):1028-1042.

Qin, G., Lin, Q., Gu, N., Lin, J. and L. Huang. 2012. Effect of broodstock origin, background and substrate color on skin coloration of three-spotted seahorses Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach, 1814. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 416-417:129-134.

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Smith, R., Grutter, A.S. and I.R. Tibbetts. 2012. Extreme habitat specialisation and population structure of two gorgonian-associated pygmy seahorses.Marine Ecology Progress Series 444:195-206.

Tanu, Deobagkar, D.D., Khandeparker, R., Sreepada, R.A., Sanaye, S.V. and H.B. Pawar. 2012. A study on bacteria associated with the intestinal tract of farmed yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852): characterization and extracellular enzymes. Aquaculture Research 43:386-394.

Valladares, S. and M. Planas. 2012. Non-lethal dorsal fin sampling for stable isotope analysis in seahorses. Aquatic Ecology 46(3):363-370.

Van Wassenbergh, S. 2012. Three-dimensional model of force transmission in the suction feeding system of seahorses. Integrative and Comparative Biology 52:E180-E180.

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West, K. 2012. Investigations into the Senegalese trade in CITES-listed seahorses, Hippocampus algiricus. Master thesis submitted to Imperial College London: 78pp.

Wetherill, T. 2012. A feeding study of the Longsnout Seahorse, Hippocampus reidi. Aquaculture-Online:12pp.

Willadino, L., Souza-Santos, L.P., Mélo, R.C.S., Brito, A.P., Barros, N.C.S., Araújo-Castro, C.M.V., Galvão, D.B., Gouveia, A., Regis, C.G. and R.O. Cavalli. 2012. Ingestion rate, survival and growth of newly released seahorse Hippocampus reidi fed exclusively on cultured live food items. Aquaculture 360-361:10-16.

Yasué, M., Nellas, A. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2012. Seahorses helped drive creation of marine protected areas, so what did these protected areas do for the seahorses? Environmental Conservation 39:183-193.

Yin, F., Tang, B., Zhang, D. and X. Zou. 2012. Lipid metabolic response, peroxidation, and antioxidant defence status of juvenile Lined Seahorse, Hippocampus erectus, fed with highly unsaturated fatty acids enriched Artemia nauplii. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 43(5):716-726.

Anderson P, Berzins IK, Fogarty F, Hamlin HJ, and Guilette Jr. LJ. 2011. Sound, stress, and seahorses: The consequences of a noisy environment to animal health. Aquaculture 311:129-138.

Anderson P and Mann D. 2011. Evoked potential audiogram of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus (Perry), in terms of sound pressure and particle acceleration. Environmental Biology of Fishes 91:251-259.

Bahr A and Wilson AB. 2011. The impact of sex-role reversal on the diversity of the major histocompatibility complex: insights from the seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis). BMC Evolutionary Biology 11:121.

Baum JK and Vincent ACJ. 2011. Seahorse trade in Mexico. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19:57-77.

Caldwell IR, Correia M, Palma J, and Vincent ACJ. 2011. Advances in tagging syngnathids, with the effects of dummy tags on behaviour of Hippocampus guttulatus. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1769-1785.

Celino, F.T., Hilomen-Garcia, G.V. and A.G.C. del Norte-Campos. 2011. Feeding selectivity of the seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker), juveniles under laboratory conditions. Aquaculture Research 43(12):1804-1815.

Coles, R., Grech, A., Rasheed, M., Mckenzie, L., Unsworth, R. and F. Short. 2011. Seagrass ecology and threats in the tropical Indo-Pacific bioregion. Seagrass ecology, uses and threats:225-240.

de Cunha, M. and B. de Silva. 2011. Anesthetic induction and recovery of Hippocampus reidi exposed to the essential oil of Lippia alba.Neotropical Ichthyology 9(3):683-688.

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Evanson, M., Foster, S.J., Wiswedel, S. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Tracking the international trade of seahorses (Hippocampus species). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(2):102.

Faleiro, F. and L. Narciso. 2011. Prey-predator dynamics in seahorses (Hippocampus guttulatus): deciphering fatty acid clues. Aquaculture Research 44(4):618-633.

Gemmell, B.J. and E.J. Buskey. 2011. The transition from nauplii to copepodites: susceptibility of developing copepods to fish predators. Journal of Plankton Research 33:1773-1777.

Grech, A. and R. Coles. 2011. Interactions between a trawl fishery and spatial closures for biodiversity conservation in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia. PLoS ONE 6(6):e21094.

Gurkan, S., Taskavak, E., Sever, T.M. and S. Akalin. 2011. Gut contents of two European seahorses Hippocampus hippocampus and Hippocampus guttulatus in the Aegean Sea, coasts of Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 43(6):1197-1201.


Hansen, G.J.A., Ban, N.C., Jones, M.L., Kaufman, L., Panes, H.M., Yasue, M. and A.C.J. 2011. Hindsight in marine protected area selection: A comparison of ecological representation arising from opportunistic and systematic approaches. Biological Conservation 144:1866-1875.

Hellyer, C.B., Harasti, D. and A.G.B. Poore. 2011. Manipulating artificial habitats to benefit seahorses in Sydney Harbour, Australia. Aquatic Conservation:Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21:582-589.

Hill, N.A.O., Rowcliffe, J.M., Koldewey, H.J., Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2011. The interaction between seaweed farming as an alternative occupation and fisher numbers in the central Philippines. Conservation Biology 26(2):324-334.

Jawad, L., Al-Kharusi, L. and J. Al-Mamry. 2011. On the occurrence of the Egyptian seahorse Hippocampus suezensis Duncker, 1940 in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. Acta Adriatica 52:137-140.

Krishnan, T., Kuiter, R.H. and J. Patterson. 2011. Occurrence of western Indian Ocean seahorse Hippocampus borboniensis Duméril , 1870 , in the Gulf of Mannars , Southeastern India. 8IJMS 40:642-644.

Lee, H.R. and K.M.B. O’Brien. 2011. Morphological and behavioral limit of visual resolution in temperate (Hippocampus abdominalis) and tropical (Hippocampus taeniopterus) seahorses.Visual Neuroscience 28:351-360.

Leysen, H., Christiaens, J., De Kegel, B., Boone, M.N., Van Hoorebeke, L. and D. Adriaens. 2011. Musculoskeletal structure of the feeding system and implications of snout elongation in Hippocampus reidi and Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1799-1823.

Martinez-Cardenas, L. and J.G. Purser. 2011. Effect of temperature on growth and survival in cultured early Juvenile Pot-bellied Seahorses, Hippocampus abdominalis. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 42:854-862.

Murugan, A. and S. Dhanya. 2011. Fishery biology, demography of three spotted seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus inhabiting Gulf of Mannar region, Southeast coast of India. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences 40(3):411-423.


Murugesan, P., Purusothaman, S. and S. Muthuvelu. 2011. Trophic level of fishes associated in the trawl bycatch from Parangipettai and Cuddalore, Southeast Coast of India. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 7:29-38

Negreiros, L.A.S., Silva, B.F., Paulino, M.G., Fernandes, M.N. and A.R. Chippari-Gomes. 2011. Effects of hypoxia and petroleum on the genotoxic and morphological parameters of Hippocampus reidi.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C 153(4):408-414.

Nishikawa, J., Fitzpatrick, R., Reimer, J.D., Beaman, R.J., Yamamoto, H. and D.J. Lindsay. 2011. In situ observation of Denise’s pygmy seahorse Hippocampus denise associated with a gorgonian coral Annella reticulata at Osprey Reef, Australia. Galaxea, Journal of Coral Reef Studies 13:25-26.

Otero-Ferrer, F. 2011. Seahorses in Gran Canaria Island (Spain): ecology and aquaculture-combined tools for marine conservation issues. Doctoral thesis submitted to the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria:279pp.

Palma, J. and D. Bureau. 2011. Effect of different Artemia enrichments and feeding protocol for rearing juvenile long snout seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Aquaculture 318:439-443.

Pawar, H. and S. Sanaye. 2011. Effect of background color of tanks on growth and survival of juvenile Yellow Seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker 1852), in the pelagic phase. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture 63:1-6.

Pawar, H., Sanaye, S.V., Sreepada, R.A., Harish, V., Suryavanshi, U., Tanu and Z.A. Ansari. 2011. Comparative efficacy of four anaesthetic agents in the yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852). Aquaculture 311:155-161.

Přikryl, T., Krzemińskic, W. and I. Kaniad. 2011. New information about the anatomy of a peculiar fish of the genus Hipposyngnathus Daniltshenko, 1960. Comptes Rendus Palevol 10:559-566.

Redford, K.H. 2011. Misreading the conservation landscape. Oryx 45(03):324-330.

Reijnen, B.T., Van Der Meij, S.E.T. and L.P. Van Ofwegen. 2011. Fish, fans and hydroids: host species of pygmy seahorses. ZooKeys 103:1-26.

Robinson, M. and X. Zhang. 2011. The world medicine situation 2011 (Traditional medicine: global situation, issues, and challenges). World Health Organization, Geneva:14pp.

Roos, G., Van Wassenbergh, S., Aerts, P., Herrel, A. and D. Adriaens. 2011. Effects of snout dimensions on the hydrodynamics of suction feeding in juvenile and adult seahorses. Journal of Theoretical Biology 269:307-317.

Rosa, I.L., Oliveira, T.P.R., Osório, F.M., Moraes, L.E., Castro, A.L.C., Barros, G.M.L. and R.R.N. Alves. 2011. Fisheries and trade of seahorses in Brazil: historical perspective, current trends, and future directions. Biodiversity and Conservation 20:1951-1971.

Saran, A. and R. Sreepada. 2011. An experiment towards characterizing seahorse sound in a laboratory controlled environment. National Conference on Electronic Technologies:3pp.

Satapoomin, U. 2011. The fishes of southwestern Thailand, the Andaman Sea: A review of research and a provisional checklist of species. Phuket Marine Biological Centre Research Bulletin 70:29-77.

Sears, B.F., Anderson, P. and E.C. Greiner. 2011. A new species of myxosporean (Sphaeromyxidae), a parasite of lined seahorses, Hippocampus erectus, from the Gulf of Mexico.J Parasitol 97(4):713-716.

Shin, S. and J. Han. 2011. Identification of scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi from indo-pacific seahorses Hippocampus kuda. African Journal of Microbiology Research 5(7):738-741.

Short FT, Sheppard JN, James NC, Whitfield AK, and Cowley PD. 2011. Extinction risk assessment of the world’s seagrass species. Biological Conservation 144(7):1961-1971.

Singh, K. and W. Lakra. 2011. Molecular identification and phylogenetic relationship of seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker 1852) using mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI gene sequences from.The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 81(1):97-101

Szabó, Z., Kimokeo, B.K., Toonen, R.J. and J.E. Randall. 2011. On the status of the Hawaiian seahorses Hippocampus hilonis , H. histrix and H. fisheri (Syngnathidae).Marine Biology Research 7:701-709.

Thangaraj, M. and A. Lipton. 2011. Assessment of genetic variation in closely related seahorse species(Genus: Hippocampus) using mtDNA marker. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 10:140-142.

Van Wassenbergh, S., Roos, G. and L. Ferry. 2011. An adaptive explanation for the horse-like shape of seahorses. Nature communications 2(164):5pp.

Vincent, A.C.J. 2011. Saving the shallows: focusing marine conservation where people might care. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21(6):495-499.

Vincent, A.C.J., Foster, S.J. and H.J. Koldewey. 2011. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1681-1724.

Vincent, A.C.J., Giles, B.G., Czembor, C. and S.J. Foster. 2011. Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001).Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19:181pp.

Wilson, B. and J.W. Orr. 2011. The evolutionary origins of Syngnathidae: pipefishes and seahorses.Journal of Fish Biology 78:1603-1623.

Woodall, L.C., Koldewey, H.J. and P.W. Shaw. 2011. Serial monogamy in the European long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Conservation Genetics 12:1645-1649.

Woodall, L.C., Koldewey, H.J. and P.W. Shaw. 2011. Historical and contemporary population genetic connectivity of the European short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus and implications for management. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1738-1756.

Zhang, D., Yin, F. and J. Lin. 2011. Criteria for assessing juvenile quality of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus. Aquaculture 322-323:255-258.

Anticamara, J.A., Zeller, D. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Spatial and temporal variation of abundance, biomass and diversity within marine reserves in the Philippines. Diversity and Distributions 16(4):529-536.

Aswani, S. 2010. How does the accuracy of fisher knowledge affect seahorse conservation status? Animal Conservation 13:538-538.

Avise, J.C. and J. Liu. 2010. Multiple mating and its relationship to alternative modes of gestation in male-pregnant versus female-pregnant fish species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107:18915-18920.

Balcázar, J.L., Gallo-Bueno, A., Planas, M. and J. Pintado. 2010. Isolation of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio splendidus from captive-bred seahorses with disease symptoms. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 97(2):207-210.

Balcázar, J.L., Lee, N.M., Pintado, J. and M. Planas. 2010. Phylogenetic characterization and in situ detection of bacterial communities associated with seahorses (Hippocampus guttulatus) in captivity.Systematic and Applied Microbiology 33(2):71-77.

Balcázar, J.L., Loureiro, S., Da Silva, Y.J., Pintado, J. and M. Planas. 2010. Identification and characterization of bacteria with antibacterial activities isolated from seahorses (Hippocampus guttulatus). The Journal of Antibiotics 63:271-274.

Berglund, A. 2010. Evolutionary Biology: Pregnant fathers in charge. Nature 464(7287):364-365.

Dearden, P., Theberge, M. and M. Yasué. 2010. Using underwater cameras to assess the effects of snorkeler and SCUBA diver presence on coral reef fish abundance, family richness, and species composition. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 163(1):531-538.

Dunham, N. 2010. The life history and energy budget of Hippocampus erectus in Tampa Bay, Florida. Master Thesis submitted to University of South Florida: 36pp.

Faleiro, F. and L. Narciso. 2010. Lipid dynamics during early development of Hippocampus guttulatus seahorses: Searching for clues on fatty acid requirements.Aquaculture 307(1-2):56-64.

Foster, R. and M.F. Gomon. 2010. A new seahorse (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from south-western Australia.Zootaxa(2613):61-68.

Foster, S.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Tropical shrimp trawl fisheries: Fishers’ knowledge of and attitudes about a doomed fishery. Marine Policy 34:437-446.

Foster, S.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Using life-history information to assess potential effects of shrimp trawling on small fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 76:2434-2454.

Garcia, L.M.B., Hilomen-Garcia, G.V. and R.L.M. Calibara. 2010. Culturing seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in illuminated cages with supplementary acetes feeding. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh 62(2):122-129.

Garrick-Maidment, N., Trewhella, S., Hatcher, J., Collins, K.J. and J.J. Mallinson. 2010. Seahorse Tagging Project, Studland Bay, Dorset, UK. Marine Biodiversity Records 3:1-4.

Harasti, D. and T. Glasby. 2010. Striking a balance between retaining populations of protected seahorses and maintaining swimming nets. Marine and Freshwater 166:159-166.

Harasti, D., Glasby, T. and K.M. Martin-Smith. 2010. Striking a balance between retaining populations of protected seahorses and maintaining swimming nets. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20(2):159-166.

Kleiber, D., Blight, L.K., Caldwell, I.R. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. The importance of seahorses and pipefishes in the diet of marine animals. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 21:205-223.

Koldewey, H.J. and K.M. Martin-Smith. 2010. A global review of seahorse aquaculture.Aquaculture 302(3-4):131-152.

Kumaravel, K. 2010. Variation in the gut micro flora of seahorses from Indian Waters. Internet Journal of Food Safety 12:95-99.

Kumaravel, K., Ravichandran, S., Balasubramanian, T., Subramanian, K.S. and B.A. Bhat. 2010. Antimicrobial effect of five seahorse species from Indian Coast.British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 1(2):62-66.

Lin, Q., Lin, J. and H. Liangmin. 2010. Effects of light intensity, stocking density and temperature on the air-bubble disease, survivorship and growth of early juvenile seahorse.Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810. Aquaculture Research 42:91-98.

Lopez, A., Vera, M., Otero-Ferrer, F., Pardo, B.G., Martinez, P., Molina, L. and C. Bouza. 2010. Species identification and genetic structure of threatened seahorses in Gran Canaria Island (Spain) using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. Conservation Genetics 11(6):2431-2436.

Macreadie, P.I., Hindell, J.S., Keough, M.J., Jenkins, G.P. and R.M. Connolly. 2010. Resource distribution influences positive edge effects in a seagrass fish. Ecology 91:2013-2021.

Maeda, K. and K. Tachibara. 2010. Diel and Seasonal Occurrence Patterns of Drifting Fish Larvae in the Teima Stream, Okinawa Island. Pacific Science 64(2):161-176.

Martins, M.L., Mouriño, J.L., Fezer, G.F., Buglione Neto, C.C., Garcia, P., Silva, B.C., Jatobá, A. and F. Vieira. 2010. Isolation and experimental infection with Vibrio alginolyticus in the sea horse, Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933 (Osteichthyes: Syngnathidae) in Brazil.Brazilian Journal of Biology 70(1):205-209.

Molloy, P.P., Anticamara, J.A., Rista, J.L. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Frugal conservation: What does it take to detect changes in fish populations? Biological Conservation 143:2532-2542.

Nijman, V. 2010. An overview of international wildlife trade from Southeast Asia. Biodiversity and Conservation 19(4):1101-1114.

O’Donnell, K.P., Pajaro, M.G. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. How does the accuracy of fisher knowledge affect seahorse conservation status? Animal Conservation 13(6):526-533.

O’Donnell, K.P., Pajaro, M.G. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Improving conservation and fishery assessments with local knowledge: future directions. Animal Conservation 13:539-540.

Oliveira, T.P.R., Castro, A.L.C. and I.L. Rosa. 2010. Novel sex-related characteristics of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933.Neotropical Ichthyology 8(2):373-378.

Otero-Ferrer, F., Molina, L., Socorro, J., Herrera, R., Fernández-Palacios, H. and M.S. Izquierdo. 2010. Live prey first feeding regimes for short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus, 1758) juveniles.Aquaculture Research 41(9):e8-e19.

Pajaro, M.G., Mulrennan, M.E., Alder, J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Developing MPA effectiveness indicators: Comparison within and across stakeholder groups and communities. Coastal Management 38(2):122-143.

Pajaro, M.G., Mulrennan, M.E. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Toward an integrated marine protected areas policy: connecting the global to the local.Environment, Development and Sustainability 12(6):945-965.

Panithanarak, T., Karuwancharoen, R., Na-Nakorn, U. and T.T.T. Nguyen. 2010. Population Genetics of the Spotted Seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) in Thai Waters: Implications for Conservation.Zoological Studies 49(4):564-576.

Perry, A.L., Lunn, K.E. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Fisheries, large-scale trade, and conservation of seahorses in Malaysia and Thailand. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20(4):464-475.

Planas, M., Quintas, P., Chamorro, A. and C. Silva. 2010. Female maturation, egg characteristics and fatty acids profile in the seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus.Animal Reproduction Science 122:66-73.

Purcell, S.W., Dalton, S,J. and S.D.A. Smith. 2010. Critical Habitats of Selected Threatened Marine Species in Northern NSW. Report submitted to the Northern Rivers Catchment Management Authority:35pp.

Quintas, P., Planas, M. and G.J. Purser. 2010. Biochemical composition and enzymatic activities in juveniles of the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis and the effect of Artemia enrichment.Aquaculture Europe 2010 Seafarming 3050:1053-1054.

Raj, S.T., Lipton, A.P. and G.S. Chauhan. 2010. Characterization and infectivity evaluation of Vibrio harveyi causing white patch disease among captive reared seahorses, Hippocampus kuda. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 39:151-156.

Ranasinghe, R. and E.P.K. Epa. 2010. Breeding of the endangered seahorse, Hippocampus kuda and contraints for larval development under captivity. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Sessions of the Institute of Biology, Sri Lanka, Columbo, 24pp.

Roos, G., Wassenbergh, S.V., Herrel, A., Adriaens, D. and P. Aerts. 2010. Snout allometry in seahorses: insights on optimisation of pivot feeding performance during ontogeny. Journal of Experimental Biology 213(13):2184-2193.

Ryu, B., Qian, Z.J. and S.K. Kim. 2010. Purification of a peptide from seahorse, that inhibits TPA-induced MMP, iNOS and COX-2 expression through MAPK and NF-kappaB activation, and induces human osteoblastic and chondrocytic differentiation.Chemical-Biological Interaction 184(3): 413-422.

Ryu, B., Qian, Z.J. and S.K. Kim. 2010. SHP-1, a novel peptide isolated from seahorse inhibits collagen release through the suppression of collagenases 1 and 3, nitric oxide products regulated by NF-kappaB/p38 kinase.Peptides 31(1):79-87.

Saarman, N.P., Louie, K.D. and H. Hamilton. 2010. Genetic differentiation across eastern Pacific oceanographic barriers in the threatened seahorse Hippocampus ingens. Conservation Genetics 11(5):1989-2000.

Santos, C.A., Novaes, L.S. and L.C. Gomes. 2010. Genotoxic effects of the diesel water-soluble fraction on the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) during acute exposure.Zoologia (Curitiba, Impresso) 27:956-960.

Scales, H. 2010. Advances in the ecology, biogeography and conservation of seahorses (genus Hippocampus).Progress in Physical Geography 34(4):443-458.

Sebastian, P., Schaefer, H. and S.S. Renner. 2010. Darwin’s Galapagos gourd: providing new insights 175 years after his visit. Journal of Biogeography 37:975-978.

Sheppard, J.N. 2010. Structure and functioning of fish assemblages in two South African estuaries, with emphasis on the presence and absence of aquatic macrophyte beds. Master Thesis submitted to Rhodes Universty:310pp.

Silveira, R.B. and N.F. Fontoura. 2010. Fecundity and fertility of the longsnout seahorse, Hippocampus reidi ( Teleostei : Syngnathidae ), in tropical Brazil.Brazilian Journal of Biosciences 8:362-367.

Smith, T.M., Hindell, J.S., Jenkins, G.P. and R.M. Connolly. 2010. Seagrass patch size affects fish responses to edges.Journal of Animal Ecology 79(1):275-281.

Thangaraj, M. 2010. Genetic Identity of Three Indian Populations of Three Spotted Seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus.Advances in Biological Research 4:37-41.

Tindemans, D., Rekecki, A. and W. Van Den Broeck. 2010. Development of the digestive tract in the seahorse (Hippocampus erectus P.). Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 79(3):207-212.

Van Cauter, S., Adriaens, D., Kannan, S., Srigiriraju, S., Praet, T., Masschaele, B., De Beule, M. and B. Verhegghe. 2010. Virtual design from nature : kinematic modeling of the seahorse tail. 2010 SIMULIA Customer Conference Proceedings, SIMULIA:770-783.

Whitfield, A.K. 2010. A century of fish research in South African estuaries.African Journal of Aquatic Science 35:211-225.

Whitfield, A.K. and P.D. Cowley. 2010. The status of fish conservation in South African estuaries.Journal of Fish Biology 76:2067-2089.

Wilson, N.G. and G.W. Rouse. 2010. Convergent camouflage and the non-monophyly of ‘seadragons’ (Syngnathidae: Teleostei): suggestions for a revised taxonomy of syngnathids.Zoologica Scripta 39(6):551-558.

Xu, Y.J., Lin, J. and S. Chen. 2010. Polyculture of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 with two species of macroalgae in aquaria.Acta Oceanologica Sinica 29(1):26-32.

Yasué, M., Kaufman, L. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Assessing ecological changes in and around marine reserves using community perceptions and biological surveys. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20:407-418.

Zhang, D., Zhang, Y., Lin, J. and Q. Lin. 2010. Growth and survival of juvenile lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus (Perry), at different stocking densities.Aquaculture Research 42:9-13.

Ban, N.C., Hansen, G.J.A., Jones, M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2009. Systematic marine conservation planning in data-poor regions: Socioeconomic data is essential.Marine Policy 33:794-800.

Barrows, A.P., Martin-Smith, K.M. and M.S. Baine. 2009. Population variables and life-history characteristics of the alligator pipefish Syngnathoides biaculeatus, in Papua New Guinea.Journal of Fish Biology 74(4):806-819.

Berglund, A. and G. Rosenqvist. 2009. An intimidating ornament in a female pipefish.Behavioral Ecology 20(1):54-59.

Blake, R.W. 2009. On seahorse locomotion.Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 56(04):939.

Burfeind, D.D., Tibbetts, I.R. and J.W. Udy. 2009. Habitat preference of three common fishes for seagrass, Caulerpa taxifolia, and unvegetated substrate in Moreton Bay, Australia.Environmental Biology of Fishes 84(3):317-322.

da Hora, M.D.C. and J.C. Joyeux. 2009. Closing the reproductive cycle: Growth of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) from birth to adulthood under experimental conditions.Aquaculture 292(1-2):37-41.

Flammang, B.E., Ferry-Graham, L.A., Rinewalt, C., Ardizzone, D., Davis, C. and T. Trejo. 2009. Prey capture kinematics and four-bar linkages in the bay pipefish, Syngnathus leptorhynchusZoology 112(2):86-96.

Garcia, L.M.B. and G.B. Hilomen-Garcia. 2009. Grow-out of juvenile seahorse Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker; Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in illuminated sea cages.Aquaculture Research 40(2):211-217.

Gomon, M.F. and R.H. Kuiter. 2009. Two new pygmy seahorses (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from the Indo-West Pacific. Aqua: International Journal of Ichthyology 15:37-44.

Goswami, M., Thangaraj, K., Chaudhary, B.K., Bhaskar, L.V.S.K., Gopalakrishnan, A., Joshi, M.B., Singh, L. and W.S. Lakra. 2009. Genetic heterogeneity in the Indian stocks of seahorse (Hippocampus kuda and Hippocampus trimaculatus) inferred from mtDNA cytochrome b gene.Hydrobiologia 621:213-221.

Grémillet, D. and T. Boulinier. 2009. Spatial ecology and conservation of seabirds facing global climate change: a review.Marine Ecology-Progress Series 391:121-137.

Gurkan, S., Taskavak, E. and B. Hossucu. 2009. The reproductive biology of the Great Pipefish Syngnathus acus (Family: Syngnathidae) in the Aegean Sea.North-Western Journal of Zoology 5(1):179-190.

Ishihara, T. and K. Tachihara. 2009. The maturity and breeding season of the bellybarred pipefish, Hippichthys spicifer, in Okinawa-jima Island rivers.Ichthyological Research 56(4):388-393.

Johnson, S.W., Thedinga, J.F. and A.D. Neff. 2009. Invasion by saffron cod Eleginus gracilis into nearshore habitats of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 389:203-212.

Khan, S.B., Qian, Z., Ryu, B. and S. Kim. 2009. Isolation and biochemical characterization of collagens from seaweed pipefish, Syngnathus Schlegeli.Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 14(4):436-442.

Køie, M. and E. Karlsbakk. 2009. Ellipsomyxa syngnathi sp n. (Myxozoa, Myxosporea) in the pipefish Syngnathus typhle and S. rostellatus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) from Denmark.Parasitology Research 105(6):1611-1616.

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Lin, Q., Lin, J. and L. Huang. 2009. Effects of substrate color, light intensity and temperature on survival and skin color change of juvenile seahorses, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810.Aquaculture 298(1-2):157-161.

Lin, Q., Lin, J. and C. Wang. 2009. Biochemical composition of the wild and cultured seahorses, Hippocampus kuda Bleeker and Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach.Aquaculture Research 40(6):710-719.

Lin, Q., Lin, J., Zhang, D. and Y. Wang. 2009. Weaning of juvenile seahorses Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 from live to frozen food.Aquaculture 291(3-4):224-229.

Lin, Q., Zhang, D. and D. Lin. 2009. Effects of light intensity, stocking density, feeding frequency and salinity on the growth of sub-adult seahorses Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810.Aquaculture 292(1-2):111-116.

Lopez, M.A. and E. Gisbert. 2009. Evaluation of a by-catch reduction device for glass eel fishing traps. Fisheries Management and Ecology 16(6):438-447.

Mai, A.C.G. and I.L. Rosa. 2009. Ecological aspects of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi in the Camurupim/Cardoso estuary, Piauí State, Brazil, as subsidies for the implementation of an Environmental Protection Area.Biota Neotropica 9:85-91.

Maidment-Garrick, N. 2009. A note on the status of indigenous species of sea horse. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 78:691-692.

Malavasi, S., Riccato, F., Georgalas, V., Franzoi, P. and P. Torricelli. 2009. Occurrence and intensity of intercohort cannibalism of post-hatching stages in the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle.Journal of Applied Ichthyology 25(4):79-480.

Masonjones, H.D. and E. Rose. 2009. Reproductive demographics of syngnathid fishes inhabiting a human-altered landscape.Integrative and Comparative Biology 49:E267-E267.

Mattle, B. and A.B. Wilson. 2009. Body size preferences in the pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis: choosy males and indiscriminate females.Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63(10):1403-1410.

Mobley, K.B. and A.G. Jones. 2009. Environmental, demographic, and genetic mating system variation among five geographically distinct dusky pipefish (Syngnathus floridae) populations.Molecular Ecology 18(7):1476-1490.

Murugan, A., Dhanya, S., Sreepada, R.A., Rajagopal, S. and T. Balasubramanian. 2009. Breeding and mass-scale rearing of three spotted seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach under captive conditions.Aquaculture 290(1-2):87-96.

Naud, M.J., Curtis, J.M.R., Woodall, L.C. and M.B. Gaspar. 2009. Mate choice, operational sex ratio, and social promiscuity in a wild population of the long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus.Behavioral Ecology 20(1):160-164.

Neumann, H., Reiss, H., Rakers, S., Ehrich, S. and I. Kroncke. 2009. Temporal variability in southern North Sea epifauna communities after the cold winter of 1995/1996.Ices Journal of Marine Science 66(10):2233-2243.

Otsuka, Y., Suzuki, H. and I. Akagawa. 2009. Occurrence, gonad morphology and maturity of Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei in Matsushima Bay, Japan.Journal of the School of Marine Science and Technology Tokai University 7(1):11-22.

Ozaka, C., Yamamoto, N. and H. Somiya. 2009. The aglomerular kidney of the deep-sea fish, Ateleopus japonicus (Ateleopodiformes: Ateleopodidae): Evidence of wider occurrence of the aglomerular condition in teleostei.Copeia(3):609-617.

Partridge, C. 2009. The effect of environmental contaminants on mating dynamics and population viability in a sex-role reversed pipefish. Doctoral dissertation submitted to Texas A&M University:179pp.

Partridge, C., Ahnesjö, I., Kvarnemo, C., Mobley, K.B., Berglund, A. and A.G. Jones. 2009. The effect of perceived female parasite load on post-copulatory male choice in a sex-role-reversed pipefish. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63(3):345-354.

Qian, Z., Ryu, B., Kim, M. and S. Kim. 2009. Free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of the extracts from seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeler.Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 13(6):705-715.

Quintas, P., Planas, M. and G.J. Purser. 2009. The effect of artemia enrichment on the early rearing of the pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis.Journal Of The World Aquaculture Society 3:1055-1056.

Randall, J.E. and S.A. Lourie. 2009. Hippocampus tyro, a new seahorse (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae) from the Seychelles. Smithiana Bulletin 10:19-21.

Ratterman, N.L., Rosenthal, G.G. and A.G. Jones. 2009. Sex recognition via chemical cues in the sex-role-reversed Gulf Pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli).Ethology 115(4):339-346.

Rioux, M. 2009. Poseidon’s Steed: The Story of Seahorses, from Myth to Reality.Library Journal 134(11):89-89.

Ripley, J.L. 2009. Osmoregulatory role of the paternal brood pouch for two Syngnathus species.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology- Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 154(1):98-104.

Ripley, J.L. and C.M. Foran. 2009. Direct evidence for embryonic uptake of paternally-derived nutrients in two pipefishes (Syngnathidae: Syngnathus spp.).Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 179(3):325-333.

Ripley, J.L. and C.M. Foran. 2009. Quantification of whole brain arginine vasotocin for two Syngnathus pipefishes: elevated concentrations correlated with paternal brooding. Fish Physiology Biochemistry 36(4):867-874.

Ripley, J.L. and C.M. Foran. 2009. Elevated whole brain arginine vasotocin with Aroclor 1254 exposure in two Syngnathus pipefishes. Fish Physiology Biochemistry 36(4):917-921.

Roos, G., Leysen, H., Van Wassenbergh, S., Herrel, A., Jacobs, P., Dierick, M., Aerts, P. and D. Adriaens. 2009. Linking morphology and motion: a test of a four-bar mechanism in seahorses.Physiological Biochemical Zoology 82(1):7-19.

Roos, G., Van Wassenbergh, S., Herrel, A. and P. Aerts. 2009. Kinematics of suction feeding in the seahorse Hippocampus reidi.Journal of Experimental Biology 212(21):3490.

Scobell, S.K., Fudicker, A.M. and R. Knapp. 2009. Potential reproductive rate of a sex-role reversed pipefish over several bouts of mating.Animal Behaviour 78(3):747-753.

Shine, R., Greenlees, M., Crossland, M. and D. Nelson. 2009. The myth of the toad-eating frog.Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7:359-361.

Shokri, M.R., Gladstone, W. and J. Jelbart. 2009. The effectiveness of seahorses and pipefish (Pisces: Syngnathidae) as a flagship group to evaluate the conservation value of estuarine seagrass beds.Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19(5):588-595.

Silva, K., Almada, V.C., Vieira, M.N. and N.M. Monteiro. 2009. Female reproductive tactics in a sex-role reversed pipefish: scanning for male quality and number.Behavioral Ecology 20(4):768-772.

Smith, T., Gibbs, M. and D. Smith. 2009. Fishing for more effective incentives.Science 323:337-337.

Storero, L.P. and R.A. Gonzalez. 2009. Prey selectivity and trophic behavior of the Patagonian Seahorse, Hippocampus patagonicus, in captivity.Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 40(3):394-401.

Teske, P.R. and L.B. Beheregaray. 2009. Evolution of seahorses’ upright posture was linked to Oligocene expansion of seagrass habitats.Biology Letters 5(4):521-523.

Thomas, G.H. 2009. Bergmann’s idiosyncratic rule: a role for fecundity selection?Molecular Ecology 18(6):1027-1029.

Turpie, J., Joubert, A., Babiker, H., Chaudhry, J., Child, M., Hempson, T., Humphrey, G., Joseph, G., La Grange, R., Lipsey, M., Mann, G., Okes, N., Puttick, J. and T. Wistebaar. 2009. Integrated Ecological-Economic Modelling as an Estuarine Management Tool: A Case Study of the East Kleinemonde Estuary. Report submitted to the Water Research Commission:65pp.

Van Wassenbergh, S., Roos, G. and P. Aerts. 2009. Pivot feeding performance in pipefish and seahorses analysed by forward dynamic modelling.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 153A(2):S125-S126.

Van Wassenbergh, S., Roos, G., Genbrugge, A., Leysen, H., Aerts, P., Adriaens, D. and A. Herrel. 2009. Suction is kid’s play: extremely fast suction in newborn seahorses.Biology Letters 5(2): 200-203.

Weis, J.S., Weis, P., MacDonald, J. and L. Pearson. 2009. Rapid changes in fish utilization of mangrove habitat in Western Madagascar.Wetlands Ecology and Management 17(4):345-354.

Wilson, A.B. 2009. Fecundity selection predicts Bergmann’s rule in syngnathid fishes.Molecular Ecology 18(6):1263-1272.

Wilson, A.B. 2009. Opening Pandora’s box: comparative studies of genetic mating systems reveal reproductive complexity.Molecular Ecology 18(7):1307-1309.

Woodall, L.C., Koldewey, H.J., Santos, S.V. and P.W. Shaw. 2009. First occurrence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean.Journal of Fish Biology 75:1505-1512.

Yasué, M. and P. Dearden. 2009. The importance of supratidal habitats for wintering shorebirds and the potential impacts of shrimp aquaculture.Environmental Management 43(6):1108-1121.

Zalohar, J., Hitij, T. and M. Kriznar. 2009. Two new species of seahorses (Syngnathidae, Hippocampus) from the Middle Miocene (Sarmatian) Coprolitic Horizon in Tunjice Hills, Slovenia: The oldest fossil record of seahorses.Annales De Paleontologie 95(2):71-96.

Ahnesjo, I. 2008. Behavioural temperature preference in a brooding male pipefish Syngnathus typhle.Journal of Fish Biology 73(4):1039-1045.

Anonymous. 2008. Pipefish – No substitute for sandeels if you are a hungry seabird.British Birds 101(7):376-377.

Astporsson, O.S. and J. Palsson. 2008. Recent increase in snake pipefish (Entelurus aequoreus) in Icelandic waters. Natturufraedingurinn 77(1-2):59-62.

Baine, M.S.P., Barrow, A.P.W., Ganiga, G. and K.M. Martin-Smith. 2008. Residence and movement of pygmy seahorses, Hippocampus bargibanti, on sea fans (Muricella spp.).Coral Reefs 27(2):421-421.

Ban, N.C. and J. Alder. 2008. How wild is the ocean? Assessing the intensity of anthropogenic marine activities in British Columbia , Canada. Main 85:55-85.

Ban, N.C., Picard, C. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2008. Moving Toward Spatial Solutions in Marine Conservation with Indigenous Communities. Ecology And Society 13:32pp.

Ben Amor, M.M., Ben Salem, M., Ben Souissi, J. and C. Capape. 2008. Occurrence of Nilsson’s Pipefish Syngnathus Rostellatus (Osteichthyes: Syngnathidae) in the Gulf of Tunis (Central Mediterranean).Vie Et Milieu-Life and Environment 58(3-4):189-192.

Bijukumar, A., Abraham, K.M. and D. Soumya. 2008. Morphometry and Meristics of Longnose Seahorse, Hippocampus Trimaculatus (Actinopterygii: Syngnathidae), from Kerala, South-West Coast of India.Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria 38(2):149-155.

Browne, R.K., Baker, J.L. and R.M. Connolly. 2008. Chapter 13: Syngnathids: Seadragons, Seahorses, and Pipefishes of Gulf St Vincent. Natural history of Gulf St Vincent.Royal Society of South Australia (Inc):162-176.

Bruner, R. and V. Bartolino. 2008. Morphological Variation in the Seahorse Vertebral System. International Journal of Morphology 26(2):247-262.

Castro, A.L., Diniz, A., Martins, I.Z., Vendel, A.L., Oliveria, T.P.R. and I.M.L. Rosa. 2008. Assessing diet composition of seahorses in the wild using a non destructive method: Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) as a study-case. Neotropical Ichthyology 6(4):637-644.

Clynick, B.G. 2008. Harbour swimming nets: a novel habitat for seahorses.Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18(5):483-492.

Curtis, J.M.R. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2008. Use of Population Viability Analysis to Evaluate CITES Trade-Management Options for Threatened Marine Fishes.Conservation Biology 22(5):1225-1232.

Dzyuba, B.B., Van Look, K.J., Kholodnyy, V.S., Satake, N., Cheung, S. and W.V. Holt. 2008. Variable sperm size and motility activation in the pipefish, Syngnathus abaster; adaptations to paternal care or environmental plasticity?Reproduction Fertilization and Development 20(4):474-482.

Ebeling, J. and M. Yasué. 2008. Generating carbon finance through avoided deforestation and its potential to create climatic, conservation and human development benefits.Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 363:1917-1924.

Faleiro, F., Narciso, L. and L. Vicente. 2008. Seahorse behaviour and aquaculture: How to improve Hippocampus guttulatus husbandry and reproduction?Aquaculture 282(1-4):33-40.

**FAO (2008). CITES issues with respect to fish trade and CITES/FAO Memorandum of Understanding. Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

Forsgren, K.L. and K.A. Young. 2008. Gonadal morphology of the weedy seadragon, Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepede): characterisation of ovarian and testicular maturation.Australian Journal of Zoology 56(6):441-446.

Freret-Meurer, N.V. and J.V. Andreata. 2008. Field studies of a Brazilian Seahorse population, Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933.Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 51(4):743-751.

Gehring, G. and E. Ruffing. 2008. When arguments prevail over power: The CITES procedure for the listing of endangered species. Global Environmental Politics 8(2):27pp.

Harris, M.P., Newell, M., Daunt, F. and J.R. Speakman. 2008. Snake Pipefish Entelurus aequoreus are poor food for seabirds.Ibis 150(2):413-415.

Ishihara, T. and K. Tachihara. 2008. Reproduction and early development of a freshwater pipefish Microphis leiaspis in Okinawa-jima Island, Japan.Ichthyological Research 55(4):349-355.

James, N.C., Whitfield, A.K. and P.D. Cowley. 2008. Preliminary indications of climate-induced change in a warm-temperate South African estuarine fish community. Journal of Fish Biology 72:1855-1863.

James, N.C., Whitfield, A.K. and P.D. Cowley. 2008. Long-term stability of the fish assemblages in a warm-temperate South African estuary.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 76:723-738.

Kawahara, R., Miya, M., Mabuchi, K., Lavoué, S., Inoue, J.G., Satoh, T.P., Kawaguchi, A. and M. Nishida. 2008. Interrelationships of the 11 gasterosteiform families (sticklebacks, pipefishes, and their relatives): A new perspective based on whole mitogenome sequences from 75 higher teleosts.Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46(1):224-236.

Kéry, M. and B. Schmidt. 2008. Imperfect detection and its consequences for monitoring for conservation.Community Ecology 9(2):207-216.

Kitsos, M.S., Tzomos, T., Anagnostopoulou, L. and A. Koukouras. 2008. Diet composition of the seahorses, Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier, 1829 and Hippocampus hippocampus (L., 1758) (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) in the Aegean Sea.Journal of Fish Biology 72(6):1259-1267.

Krupczynski, R. 2008. Diversity of fin-activation patterns in the longsnout seahorse, Hippocampus reidi. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology a-Molecular & Integrative Physiology 150(3):S108-S109.

Li, Y., Qian, Z. and S. Kim. 2008. Cathepsin B inhibitory activities of three new phthalate derivatives isolated from seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeler.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 18(23):6130-6134.

Lin, Q., Lin, J. and D. Zhang. 2008. Breeding and juvenile culture of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry,1810.Aquaculture 277(3-4):287-292.

Lin, Q., Lin, J., Lu, J. and B. Li. 2008. Biochemical composition of six seahorse species, Hippocampus sp., from the Chinese coast.Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 39(2):225-234.

Lourie, S.A. and R.H. Kuiter. 2008. Three new pygmy seahorse species from Indonesia (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus).Zootaxa 68:54-68.

Lunn, K., Noriega, V.M.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2008. Souvenirs from the sea: an investigation into the curio trade in echinoderms from Mexico.Traffic Bull 22:19-32.

Martinez-Cardenas, L., Porter, M. and G.J. Purser. 2008. Light-dark variations in plasma melatonin concentrations in the pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson, 1827. Journal of Fish Biology 72(7):1799-1803.

Morgan, S.K., Curtis, J.M.R. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2008. Axes of excellence: a role for students as community-engaged scholars.Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6:105-106.

Morgan, S.K. and H.M. Panes. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 (Syngnathidae).Environmental Biology of Fishes 82(1):21-22.

Murugan, A., Dhanya, S. and S. Rajagopal. 2008. Seahorses and pipefishes of the Tamil Nadu coast.Current Science 95(2):253-260.

Nadeau, J.L., Curtis, J.M.R. and S.A. Lourie. 2008. Preservation causes shrinkage in seahorses: implications for biological studies and for managing sustainable trade with minimum size limits.Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19(4):428-438.

Naud, M.J., Curtis, J.M.R., Woodall, L.C. and M.B. Gaspar. 2008. Mate choice, operational sex ratio, and social promiscuity in a wild population of the long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus.Behavioral Ecology 20:160-164.

Okuzawa, K., Maliao, R.J., Quinitio, E.T., Buen-Ursua, S.M.A., Lebata, M.J.H.L., Gallardo, W.G., Garcia, L.M.B. and J.H. Primavera. 2008. Stock enhancement of threatened species in Southeast Asia. Reviews in Fisheries Science 16(1-3):394-402.

Olivotto, I., Avella, M.A., Sampaolesi, G., Piccinetti, C.C., Ruiz, P.N. and O. Carnevali. 2008. Breeding and rearing the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi: Rearing and feeding studies.Aquaculture 283(1-4):92-96.

Palma, J., Stockdale, J., Correia, M. and J.P. Andrade. 2008. Growth and survival of adult long snout seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) using frozen diets.Aquaculture 278(1-4):55-59.

Patron, J.J., Herrera, A.A. and E.P. Oconer. 2008. Prolactin and growth hormone levels in the pouch fluid of gravid male seahorse, Hipocampus barbouri Jordan and Richardson 1908.Asia Life Sciences 17(2):261-269.

Planas, M., Chamorro, A., Quintas, P. and A. Vilar. 2008. Establishment and maintenance of threatened long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus, broodstock in captivity.Aquaculture 283:19-28.

Polte, P. and C. Buschbaum. 2008. Native pipefish Entelurus aequoreus are promoted by the introduced seaweed Sargassum muticum in the northern Wadden Sea, North Sea.Aquatic Biology 3(1):11-18.

Qian, Z.J., Ryu, B., Kim, M. and S. Kim. 2008. Free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of the extracts from seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeler.Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 13(6):705-715.

Ripley, J.L. and C.M. Foran. 2008. Interspecific differences of parental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure on nutrient availability, egg production and brooding in two Syngnathus species. Journal of Fish Biology 72(6):1369-1385.

Rispoli, V.F. and A.B. Wilson. 2008. Sexual size dimorphism predicts the frequency of multiple mating in the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle.Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21(1):30-38.

Roos, G., Leysen, H., Van Wassenbergh, S., Herrel, A., Jacobs, P., Dierick, M., Aerts, P. and D. Adriaens. 2008. Linking morphology and motion: A test of a four-bar mechanism in seahorses.Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 82:7-19.

Sanders, J.G., Cribbs, J.E., Fienberg, H.G., Hulburd, G.C., Katz, L.S. and S.R. Palumbi. 2008. The tip of the tail: molecular identification of seahorses for sale in apothecary shops and curio stores in California. Conservation Genetics 9(1):65-71.

Sanna, D., Addis, A., Biagi, F., Motzo, C., Carcupino, M. and P. Francalacci. 2008. mtDNA control region and D-HPLC analysis: a method to evaluate the mating system in Syngnathidae (Teleostei).Marine Biology 153(3):269-275.

Silva, K., Vieira, M.N., Almada, V.C. and N.M. Monteiro. 2008. Can the limited marsupium space be a limiting factor for Syngnathus abaster females? Insights from a population with size-assortative mating.Journal of Animal Ecology 77(2):390-394.

Simpson, S.D., Meekan, M.G., Jeffs, A., Montgomery, J.C. and R.D. McCauley. 2008. Settlement-stage coral reef fish prefer the higher-frequency invertebrate-generated audible component of reef noise.Animal Behaviour 75:1861-1868.

Smith, R.E. and I.R. Tibbetts. 2008. Mating and birth of Denise’s pygmy seahorses (Hippocampus denise) observed in the wild.Coral Reefs 27(3):617-617.

Smith, T.M., Hindell, J.S., Jenkins, G.P. and R.M. Connolly. 2008. Edge effects on fish associated with seagrass and sand patches.Marine Ecology-Progress Series 359:203-213.

Sogabe, A., Matsumoto, K., Ohashi, M., Watanabe, A., Takata, H., Murakami, Y., Omori, K. and Y. Yanagisawa. 2008. A monogamous pipefish has the same type of ovary as observed in monogamous seahorses. Biology Letters 4(4):362-365.

Sogabe, A. and Y. Yanagisawa. 2008. Maintenance of pair bond during the non-reproductive season in a monogamous pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus. Journal of Ethology 26(1):195-199.

Storero, L.P. and R.A. Gonzalez. 2008. Feeding habits of the seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus in San Antonio Bay (Patagonia, Argentina).Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 88(7):1503-1508.

Takata, Y., Shibukawa, K. and G. Shinohara. 2008. Records of the pipefish Dunckerocampus naia (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae) from Japan.Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 55(2):135-138.

Thangaraj, M. and A.P. Lipton. 2008. Survival and growth of captive reared juvenile seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) fed live feeds and fishmeal.Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh 60(3):185-189.

Tolan, J. 2008. A reexamination of Syngnathus affinis Gunter 1870, with comparisons to Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann and Kendall 1896) (Teleostei : Syngnathidae). Texas Journal of Science 60(2):83-96.

van Damine, C.J.G. and A.S. Couperus. 2008. Mass occurrence of snake pipefish in the Northeast Atlantic: Result of a change in climate? Journal of Sea Research 60(1-2):117-125.

Van Wassenbergh, S. and P. Aerts. 2008. Rapid pivot feeding in pipefish: flow effects on prey and evaluation of simple dynamic modelling via computational fluid dynamics.J R Soc Interface 5(28):1291-1301.

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Sogabe, A., Takata, H. and Y. Kobayashi. 2012. Ovarian structure and mode of egg production in the seaweed pipefish Syngnathus schlegeli (Syngnathidae). Ichthyological Research 60(1):85-88.

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Verdiell-Cubedo, D., Torralva, M., Ruiz-Navarroa, A. and F.J. Oliva-Paterna. 2012. Fish assemblages in different littoral habitat types of a hypersaline coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, Mediterranean Sea). Italian Journal of Zoology 80(1):104-116.

Wang, M., Nie, Y., Peng, Y., He, F., Yang, J., Wu, C. and X. Li. 2012. Purification, characterization and antitumor activities of a new protein from Syngnathus acus, an officinal marine fish. Marine Drugs 10(1):35-50.

Alaya HB, Galzin R, Quignard JP, and Trabelsi M. 2011. Spinal deformities in the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster (Pisces, Syngnathidae) from the Tunis North Lake, Tunisia. Chemosphere 82:318-320.

Ben Alaya H, Sanna D, Casu M, Biagi F, Francalacci P, Carcupino M, Galzin R, Quignard JP, and Trabelsi M. 2011. Analysis of meristic and mitochondrial DNA variation in Syngnathus abaster (Teleostea: Syngnathidae) from two western Mediterranean lagoons. Biologia 66:1140-1147.

Birrer S. 2011. How salinity affects the pipefish-Vibrio interaction. Department of Biology at Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich:66pp.

Braga Goncalves I, Ahnesjö I, and Kvarnemo C. 2011. The relationship between female body size and egg size in pipefishes. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1847-1854.

Hablützel, P.I. and A.B. Wilson. 2011. Notes on the occurrence of Syngnathus rostellatus (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in the Mediterranean. Marine Biodiversity Records 4:2007-2010.

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Kvarnemo, C., Mobley, K.B., Partridge, C., Jones, A.G. and I. Ahnesjö. 2011. Evidence of paternal nutrient provisioning to embryos in broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle.  Journal of Fish Biology 78:1725-1737.

Lim, A.C.O., Chong, V.C., Wong, C.S. and C.K. Choo. 2011. Diversity, habitats and conservation threats of syngnathid (Syngnathidae) fishes in Malaysia.Tropical Zoology 24(2):193-222.

Lindqvist, C., Sundin, J., Berglund, A. and G. Rosenqvist. 2011. Male broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle do not locate females by smell.Journal of Fish Biology 78:1861-1867.

Mobley, K.B., Kvarnemo, C., Ahnesjö, I., Patridge, C., Berglund, A. and A.G. Jones. 2011. The effect of maternal body size on embryo survivorship in the broods of pregnant male pipefish. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:1169-1177.

Rosenqvist, G. and A. Berglund. 2011. Sexual signals and mating patterns in Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1647-1661.

Roth, O., Scharsack, J.P., Keller, I. and T.B. Reusch. 2011. Bateman’s principle and immunity in a sex-role reversed pipefish.Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24:1410-1420.

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Sagebakken, G., Ahnesjö, I., Goncalves, I.B. and C. Kvarnemo. 2011. Multiply mated males show higher embryo survival in a paternally caring fish. Behavioral Ecology 22:625-629.

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Sárria, M.P., Santos, M.M., Reis-Henriques, M.A., Vieira, N.M. and N.M. Monteiro. 2011. Drifting towards the surface: a shift in newborn pipefish’s vertical distribution when exposed to the synthetic steroid ethinylestradiol.Chemosphere 84:618-624.

Rozas, L.P., Minello, T.J. and D.D. Dantin. 2011. Use of Shallow Lagoon Habitats by Nekton of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Estuaries and Coasts 35(2):572-586.

Sheppard, J.N., James, N.C., Whitfield, A.K. and P.D. Cowley. 2011. What role do beds of submerged macrophytes play in structuring estuarine fish assemblages? Lessons from a warm-temperate South African estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 95:145-155.

Schein, A., Courtenay, S.C., Crane, C.S., Teather, K.L. and M.R. Van Den Heuvel. 2011. The role of submerged aquatic vegetation in structuring the nearshore fish community within an estuary of the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Estuaries and Coasts 35:799-810.

Scobell, S.K. 2011. The role of androgens in male pregnancy and female competitive behavior in a sex role reversed pipefish. Doctoral dissertation submitted to Texas A&M University:157pp.

Sogabe, A. and I. Ahnesjö. 2011. The ovarian structure and mode of egg production in two polygamous pipefishes: a link to mating pattern. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1833-1846.

Sundin, J., Jacobsson, O., Berglund, A. and G. Rosenqvist. 2011. Straight-nosed pipefish Nerophis ophidion and broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle avoid eelgrass overgrown with filamentous algae. Journal of Fish Biology 78:1855-1860.

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Sundin, J., Berglund, A. and G. Rosenqvist. 2010. Turbidity hampers mate choice in a pipefish.Ethology 116(8):713-721.

Taskavak, E., Gürkana, S., Severa, T.M., Akalına, S. and O. Özaydına. 2010. Gut contents and feeding habits of the Great Pipefish, Syngnathus acus Linnaeus, 1758, in Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea, Turkey).Zoology in the Middle East 50:75-82.

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Wang, M., He, Y., Nie, Y. and X. Li. 2011. Chemical constituents from the antitumor fraction of Trachyrhamphus serratus.Chemistry of Natural Compounds 47:465-466.


Sogabe, A., Kawanishi, R., Takata, H. and Y. Kobayashi. 2011. Basic reproductive biology of the barbed pipefish Urocampus nanus (Syngnathidae) under laboratory conditions. Ichthyological Research 59:77-82.





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Pichugin, M.Y. 2014. Morphological and biological specific features of two species of nine-spined sticklebacks of the genus Pungitius (Gasterosteiformes) from water bodies of western Kamchatka. Journal of Ichthyology 54:7-22.

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Park, J.P. 2013. Spatial learning ability of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in relation to inferred ecology and ancestry. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15(2):213-239.

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Araguas, R.M., Vidal, O., Pla, C. and N. Sanz. 2012. High genetic diversity of the endangered Iberian three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) at the Mediterranean edge of its range.Freshwater Biology 57(1):143-154.

Ardekani, R., Greenwood, A.K., Peichel, C.L. and S. Tavar. 2012. Using non-local background modeling to quantify the schooling behaviour of sticklebacks. Paper submitted to the University of Southern California:4 pp.

Benesh, D.P. and N. Hafer. 2012. Growth and ontogeny of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first host affects performance in its stickleback second intermediate host. Parasites & Vectors 5:10pp.

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Dalziel, A.C., Ou, M. and P.M. Schulte. 2012. Mechanisms underlying parallel reductions in aerobic capacity in non-migratory threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Journal of Experimental Biology 215(5):746-759.

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Deagle, B.E., Jones, F.C., Chan, Y.F., Absher, D.M., Kingsley, D.M. and T.E. Reimchen. 2012. Population genomics of parallel phenotypic evolution in stickleback across stream-lake ecological transitions.Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 279(1732):1277-1286.

DeFaveri, J., Shikano, T., Ghani, N.I.A. and J. Merilä. 2012. Contrasting population structures in two sympatric fishes in the Baltic Sea basin. Marine Biology 159(8):1659-1672.

DeFaveri, J., Zanella, L.N., Zanella, D., Mrakovčić, M. and J. Merilä. 2012. Phylogeography of isolated freshwater three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations in the Adriatic Sea basin.Journal of Fish Biology 80(1):61-85.

Dingemanse, N.J., Barber, I., Wright, J. and J.E. Brommer. 2012. Quantitative genetics of behavioural reaction norms: genetic correlations between personality and behavioural plasticity vary across stickleback populations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25(3):485-496.

Flamarique, I.N., Cheng, C.L., Bergstrom, C. and T.E. Reimchen. 2012. Pronounced heritable variation and limited phenotypic plasticity in visual pigments and opsin expression of threespine stickleback photoreceptors. The Journal of Experimental Biology 216:656-667.

Frommen, J.G., Bakker, T.C.M., Proscurcin, L. and M. Mehlis. 2012. Gravidity-Associated Shoaling Decisions in Three-Spined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).Ethology 118(12):1149-1156.

Gambling, S.J. and T.E. Reimchen. 2012. Prolonged life span among endemic Gasterosteus populations.Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 90(2):284-290.

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Heins, D.C. 2012. Fecundity compensation in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus infected by the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 106(4):807-819.

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